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Major World Religions. SOL WHII.15. Warm-up: How have the five world religions had a profound impact on culture and civilization?. What are some characteristics of the five major world religions?. Monotheism. Belief in only one God Three monotheistic religions Judaism Christianity Islam.

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Major World Religions

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warm up how have the five world religions had a profound impact on culture and civilization
Warm-up:How have the five world religions had a profound impact on culture and civilization?

What are some characteristics of the five major world religions?

  • Belief in only one God
  • Three monotheistic religions
    • Judaism
    • Christianity
    • Islam
  • Semitic Religion
  • Based on the history of Hebrews (who were an ethnic group from the Fertile Crescent)
  • Hebrew God=Yaweh
  • Holy Text=Torah
judaism history
  • Hebrews originated in Mesopotamia around the Fertile Crescent
  • Abraham—covenant with God
  • From there they went to Canaan or Palestine
  • Forced to Egypt—enslaved
  • Moses leads from slavery
  • Return to Palestine (present day Israel)–believe God promised land to them
  • David was king who united Hebrew tribes
judaism beliefs
  • Hebrew beliefs=religion of Judaism
  • Monotheistic
  • Basis=laws that governed daily life
  • Ten Commandments
  • Rabbis
  • Diaspora
jewish information
  • Belief in the messiah
  • Mitzvoth
  • Branches of Judaism
    • Orthodox
    • Conservative
jewish rituals
  • Circumcision
  • Bar/Bat mitzvah
  • Death=usually no cremation or embalming
  • Funeral w/in 1-2 days in wooden casket
  • Kippah or Yamekah
jewish holidays
  • Chanukah
  • Rosh Hashanah
  • Yom Kippur
  • Passover
where in the world can we find judaism
Where in the world can we find Judaism?
  • Concentrated in Israel, Europe, North America and the Middle East
christianity history
  • Emerged from the Roman Empire
  • Emerged as a result of Jesus (Son of God)
  • Life of Jesus=Gospels (1st 4 books of New Testament)
  • Christianity began as a sect of Judaism
christianity jesus
  • Jesus-the messiah
  • Disciples
  • Moved to Jerusalem
similarities differences in jesus teaching and judaism
Similarities/Differences in Jesus’ teaching and Judaism


  • Monotheistic
  • Ten Commandments
  • Laws of Moses


  • Jesus is the Son of God
  • Jesus is the Messiah
  • Jesus could provide salvation and eternal life for believers
  • Preached forgiveness
  • Christians belief in Trinity
jesus life
  • Feared by Jewish priests
  • Feared by Roman leaders
  • Betrayed by a disciple
  • Arrested by Romans
  • Tried by Pontius Pilate
  • Condemned and Executed by Crucifixion
  • Paul—spread Christianity
where in the world can we find christianity
Where in the world can we find Christianity?
  • Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East
warm up
  • Why are the cities of Mecca and Medina important to Muslims?
  • Arabian Peninsula-major trade route
  • Mecca—market and location of the Kaa’ba
  • Monotheistic Religion
  • Medina
muhammad s life
Muhammad’s Life
  • Successful merchant
  • Married Kadejah/raised by an uncle
  • At 40-met angel Gabriel in a cave while meditating
  • Was told to spread the word of God or Allah
  • Islam—submission
  • Muhammad and followers were forced to leave Mecca
muhammad s life cont
Muhammad’s Life (cont.)
  • In 622, journey to Medina—hijra
  • 1st year of Muslim calendar
  • In 630,returned to Mecca—destroyed statues in kaa’ba
  • Spread by caliphs
religious principles
Religious Principles
  • Monotheistic religion
  • God is called Allah
  • Holy Book=Koran (Quran)
  • Judgment Day
  • Five Pillars
  • Jihad
  • Harsh penalties for crimes
  • No pork or alcohol
five pillars
Five Pillars
  • 1. Declaration of Faith
  • 2. Daily Prayer
  • 3. Alms
  • 4. Fasting
  • 5. Hajj
different sects
  • Sunni Muslims
    • Largest group
    • Traditional path
    • Islamic leader DOES NOT need to be a direct descendant of Muhammad
    • Elect caliphs based on ability
    • Entire Islamic community to be judged on the Day of Judgment
different sects1
  • Shi’ite Muslims
    • Believe that only descendants of Ali should lead Islam
    • Believe that the Imam is the only person that can guide a Muslim to salvation
rituals and rites of passage
  • Celebration of birth
  • Men and women usually do not mingle together
  • Polygamy—up to 4 wives
  • Death is marked by simplicity
where in the world can we find islam
Where in the world can we find Islam?
  • Located in parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe
  • No single founder
  • No single text
  • Religion based on compilation of many beliefs and many people
  • Hundreds of gods and goddesses—Many forms of one deity (God)
  • Numerous ways to worship
basic beliefs
  • Polytheistic (some consider it monotheistic?)
  • Important gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
  • Gods can be in human or animal form
  • Believe in atman
  • Ultimate goal is to reach moksha
  • Reincarnation
  • Dharma—duties Karma—Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
  • All life is ranked
caste system
  • 1. Brahmans
  • 2. Kastriyas
  • 3. Vaisyas
  • 4. Sudras
  • 5. Untouchables
principles of hinduism
Principles of Hinduism
  • Vedas and Upanishads
  • Nonviolent
  • Cleanliness/ritual bathing (Ganges River)
  • Pilgrimage
  • Name ceremony for new baby
  • Ear piercing ceremony
  • Hair cut
  • Rite of passage ceremony
  • Marriages are arranged
  • Cremation at death
where in the world can we find hinduism
Where in the world can we find Hinduism?
  • Located in India and part of Southeast Asia
  • Grew out of Hinduism—spread of Buddhism from India to China as a result of Asoka’s missionaries and their writings
  • Founder = Siddartha Gautama
  • Gautama was a Prince
  • Sheltered in a castle—in luxury
  • He left the castle and saw suffering
  • Meditated beneath a fig tree (48 days)
  • Realized causes of suffering—became known as Buddha-”Enlightened One”
  • 4 Noble Truths
  • Eightfold Path
  • Nirvana
  • Reincarnation
similarities and differences of buddhism to hinduism
Similarities and Differences of Buddhism to Hinduism
  • Similarities
    • Honesty
    • Charity
    • Kindness
    • Nonviolence
  • Differences
    • No formal rituals
    • No polytheism
    • No god
    • Just a spirit of the universe
  • Followers established monasteries/convents
  • Birth ceremony
  • Dalai Lama—most sacred religious leader within Buddhism
where in the world can we find buddhism
Where in the world can we find Buddhism?
  • Located in East and Southeast Asia (China)
create a map
Create a Map
  • Using the map provided please identify the world religions
  • Color code your map using colored pencils