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  1. Major World Religions SOL WHII.15

  2. Warm-up:How have the five world religions had a profound impact on culture and civilization? What are some characteristics of the five major world religions?

  3. Monotheism • Belief in only one God • Three monotheistic religions • Judaism • Christianity • Islam

  4. JUDAISM • Semitic Religion • Based on the history of Hebrews (who were an ethnic group from the Fertile Crescent) • Hebrew God=Yaweh • Holy Text=Torah

  5. JUDAISM HISTORY • Hebrews originated in Mesopotamia around the Fertile Crescent • Abraham—covenant with God • From there they went to Canaan or Palestine • Forced to Egypt—enslaved • Moses leads from slavery • Return to Palestine (present day Israel)–believe God promised land to them • David was king who united Hebrew tribes

  6. JUDAISM-BELIEFS • Hebrew beliefs=religion of Judaism • Monotheistic • Basis=laws that governed daily life • Ten Commandments • Rabbis • Diaspora

  7. JEWISH INFORMATION • Belief in the messiah • Mitzvoth • Branches of Judaism • Orthodox • Conservative

  8. JEWISH RITUALS • Circumcision • Bar/Bat mitzvah • Death=usually no cremation or embalming • Funeral w/in 1-2 days in wooden casket • Kippah or Yamekah

  9. JEWISH HOLIDAYS • Chanukah • Rosh Hashanah • Yom Kippur • Passover

  10. Where in the world can we find Judaism? • Concentrated in Israel, Europe, North America and the Middle East

  11. CHRISTIANITY HISTORY • Emerged from the Roman Empire • Emerged as a result of Jesus (Son of God) • Life of Jesus=Gospels (1st 4 books of New Testament) • Christianity began as a sect of Judaism

  12. CHRISTIANITY--Jesus • Jesus-the messiah • Disciples • Moved to Jerusalem

  13. Similarities/Differences in Jesus’ teaching and Judaism SIMILARITIES • Monotheistic • Ten Commandments • Laws of Moses DIFFERENCES • Jesus is the Son of God • Jesus is the Messiah • Jesus could provide salvation and eternal life for believers • Preached forgiveness • Christians belief in Trinity

  14. JESUS’ LIFE • Feared by Jewish priests • Feared by Roman leaders • Betrayed by a disciple • Arrested by Romans • Tried by Pontius Pilate • Condemned and Executed by Crucifixion • Paul—spread Christianity

  15. Where in the world can we find Christianity? • Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East

  16. Warm-up: • Why are the cities of Mecca and Medina important to Muslims?

  17. ISLAM • Arabian Peninsula-major trade route • Mecca—market and location of the Kaa’ba • Monotheistic Religion • Medina

  18. Muhammad’s Life • Successful merchant • Married Kadejah/raised by an uncle • At 40-met angel Gabriel in a cave while meditating • Was told to spread the word of God or Allah • Islam—submission • Muhammad and followers were forced to leave Mecca

  19. Muhammad’s Life (cont.) • In 622, journey to Medina—hijra • 1st year of Muslim calendar • In 630,returned to Mecca—destroyed statues in kaa’ba • Spread by caliphs

  20. Religious Principles • Monotheistic religion • God is called Allah • Holy Book=Koran (Quran) • Judgment Day • Five Pillars • Jihad • Harsh penalties for crimes • No pork or alcohol

  21. Five Pillars • 1. Declaration of Faith • 2. Daily Prayer • 3. Alms • 4. Fasting • 5. Hajj

  22. DIFFERENT SECTS • Sunni Muslims • Largest group • Traditional path • Islamic leader DOES NOT need to be a direct descendant of Muhammad • Elect caliphs based on ability • Entire Islamic community to be judged on the Day of Judgment

  23. DIFFERENT SECTS • Shi’ite Muslims • Believe that only descendants of Ali should lead Islam • Believe that the Imam is the only person that can guide a Muslim to salvation

  24. RITUALS AND RITES OF PASSAGE • Celebration of birth • Men and women usually do not mingle together • Polygamy—up to 4 wives • Death is marked by simplicity

  25. Where in the world can we find Islam? • Located in parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe

  26. What are the Five Pillars of Islam?

  27. Monotheistic Religions

  28. Monotheistic Religions

  29. HINDUISM • No single founder • No single text • Religion based on compilation of many beliefs and many people • Hundreds of gods and goddesses—Many forms of one deity (God) • Numerous ways to worship

  30. BASIC BELIEFS • Polytheistic (some consider it monotheistic?) • Important gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva • Gods can be in human or animal form • Believe in atman • Ultimate goal is to reach moksha • Reincarnation • Dharma—duties Karma—Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences • All life is ranked

  31. CASTE SYSTEM • 1. Brahmans • 2. Kastriyas • 3. Vaisyas • 4. Sudras • 5. Untouchables

  32. Principles of Hinduism • Vedas and Upanishads • Nonviolent • Cleanliness/ritual bathing (Ganges River) • Pilgrimage • Name ceremony for new baby • Ear piercing ceremony • Hair cut • Rite of passage ceremony • Marriages are arranged • Cremation at death

  33. Where in the world can we find Hinduism? • Located in India and part of Southeast Asia

  34. Buddhism • Grew out of Hinduism—spread of Buddhism from India to China as a result of Asoka’s missionaries and their writings • Founder = Siddartha Gautama • Gautama was a Prince • Sheltered in a castle—in luxury • He left the castle and saw suffering • Meditated beneath a fig tree (48 days) • Realized causes of suffering—became known as Buddha-”Enlightened One”

  35. Buddhism • 4 Noble Truths • Eightfold Path • Nirvana • Reincarnation

  36. Similarities and Differences of Buddhism to Hinduism • Similarities • Honesty • Charity • Kindness • Nonviolence • Differences • No formal rituals • No polytheism • No god • Just a spirit of the universe

  37. Buddhism • Followers established monasteries/convents • Birth ceremony • Dalai Lama—most sacred religious leader within Buddhism

  38. Where in the world can we find Buddhism? • Located in East and Southeast Asia (China)

  39. Hinduism/Buddhism

  40. Create a Map • Using the map provided please identify the world religions • Color code your map using colored pencils

  41. Location of the World’s Major Religions