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Unit 2 Review. United States History Mr. Hughes. The Populist Party . The three major things called for on their platform were Bimetallism, the free and unlimited coinage of silver. A progressive income tax. An eight-hour work day. . William Jennings Bryan. Monopolies v. Trusts. Monopoly.

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unit 2 review

Unit 2 Review

United States History

Mr. Hughes

the populist party
The Populist Party
  • The three major things called for on their platform were
    • Bimetallism, the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
    • A progressive income tax.
    • An eight-hour work day.

William Jennings Bryan

monopolies v trusts
Monopolies v. Trusts



This is when a number of businesses cooperate to dominate an industry and split the profits.

  • This process involves one company competing with and destroying its competitors .
the jungle the meat inspection act of 1906
The Jungle & The Meat Inspection Act of 1906
  • In 1906, after spending time in a Chicago meat packing plant, Upton Sinclair publishes the book, The Jungle.
    • It shed light on the conditions men had to work in while in the plants.
    • It also showed what was going into the food they were packing.
  • The public was outraged and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was passed.
  • The Food and Drug Administration is a result of the uproar from The Jungle


the interstate commerce act
The Interstate Commerce Act
  • Congress passed the law in 1887.
    • This followed the Supreme Court decision to overturn Munn v. Illinois which allowed states to regulate railroad rates, which benefited farmers.
  • The federal government now assumed responsibility to supervise railroad activities.
  • The overall goal of the law was to lower excessive railroad rates and stop railroad abuses
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • The ideology was popular to explain why only a small few had all the wealth in the United States.
    • It was based off Charles Darwin book, Origin of the Species, which argued that the animals on the planet were the best suited for survival.
    • Essentially it explained that the rich got that way because they are the smartest and have worked the hardest.
  • It was the explanation used for the economic divide in the United States.
social gospel movement
Social Gospel Movement
  • The Social Gospel Movement was started in the late 19th century to help improve the lives of the urban poor.
    • They preached the salvation through service to the poor.
      • Many did answer the call and began to help the urban poor.
    • People like Richard Ely, Washington Gladden, and Walter Rauschenbusch were all influential leaders of the cause.
settlement houses
Settlement Houses
  • As problems in the cities mounted, concerned reformers worked to find solutions.
    • One point of focus was trying to eliminate urban poverty.
  • One avenue they took was to create settlement houses.
    • These houses were built in slums neighborhoods to help the poor, especially immigrants.
    • The house offered educational, cultural, and social services to their communities.
  • Charles Stover and Stanton Colt are credited for opening the first settlement house in NYC in 1886.
  • Jane Addams and Ellen Gates opened the Hull House in Chicago in 1889.
  • In 1910, Janie Porter Barrett opened the first settlement house for African-Americans, the Locust Street Settlement, in Hampton Virginia.
    • By 1910, there were 400 settlement houses in the United States.
    • These houses helped cultivate a social responsibility for the urban poor.


carnegie rockefeller
Carnegie & Rockefeller
  • Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller were captains of industry in the late 1800’s.
    • Carnegie used vertical integration to amass his fortune.
    • While Rockefeller used horizontal integration to earn his millions.
gilded age
Gilded Age
  • The name “Gilded Age” refers to the massive economic growth in the United States from 1869 through 1896.
  • On the outside, America looked rich and a symbol of democracy, but a closer look would illustrate political corruption and greed.
industrial growth
Industrial Growth
  • There were 3 major reasons for the massive industrial growth in the United States between 1860 and 1920.
    • Abundant natural resources.
    • New inventions
    • A growing population to provide markets and workers.
The use of scabs were unpopular with striking workers during the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.Scabs
  • With the growing populations and limited living areas, many cities grew up instead of out.
    • This was an option due to the development of a cheap and easy way to make steel at the end of the 19th century.
  • With the idea that the U.S. had jobs for everyone, many people settled in the major industrial cities in order to find work.
    • In 1907 alone, over 1 million people arrived from Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
  • With the 1898 annexation of Hawaii to the United States, the door opened for Japanese to come to the U.S.
    • By 1920, 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast.
  • The term urbanization was used to describe the growth in cities.
u s population 1850 1900
U.S. Population 1850-1900
  • Millions of immigrants came to the United States with the hope of attaining a better life.
    • Immigrants had the option to start over in the United States or face famine, overpopulation, and/or religious persecution in their homeland.
      • Some immigrants where known as “birds of passage”, they would simply come to earn money, and then return to their homeland.
political machines
Political Machines
  • Once admitted into the country, immigrants now had to find a place to live, a job, and survive in a culture that was entirely new to them.
    • Political groups helped the immigrants find medical treatment, housing, jobs, and schools.
      • This was an attempt to influence their vote in later elections.
      • Social reformers saw this practice as a exploitation of the newly arrived immigrants.
        • They attacked them through various legal avenues eventually brought them down.
  • Many people who lived in America saw their country as a melting pot.
    • This was the mixture of all the different nationalities to create an American culture.
      • This did call for immigrants to drop the customs they were used to in order to become “Americanized”.
  • Even with having to endure racial and ethnic prejudice, many new immigrants did not want to leave behind traditions of their old country.
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • The usual laborer during this time period worked long hours and was paid low wages.
    • One example was the Triangle Shirtwaist Company.
      • Women there worked 14 hours days, 6 days a week, and received about $6 in wages.
  • The low wages and long hours prompted workers to unite and form unions.
sherman antitrust act
Sherman Antitrust Act
  • This was created to break up monopolies.
  • It was used by business leaders to limit labor union activities by claiming that it interfered with trade.
haymarket affair homestead strike
Haymarket Affair & Homestead Strike
  • There were 3 major results from the Haymarket Affair and Homestead Strike.
    • Public opinion began to turn against the labor movement.
    • The end of any meaningful union in the steel industry for almost 40 years.
    • Management, in many cases, began forcing new employees to sign “yellow- dog” contracts, prohibiting them from joining a union.
progressive era politics
Progressive Era Politics
  • With all the problems the nation faced, a new philosophy took over the government.
  • The Progressive Era was based off a government that pushed to foster efficiency and respond to public needs.
gentleman s agreement
Gentleman’s Agreement
  • 1908: The Gentleman’s Agreement was signed between the United States and Japan.
    • In 1906, the city of San Francisco forced all Japanese students to attend segregated schools.
      • Japan protested in response to the move.
    • Japan agreed to limit emigration to the United States in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco school segregation.
chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1882: Congress stopped the immigration of Chinese for 10 years by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act.
    • Only students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials were permitted to enter the U.S.
      • It severely limited the number of immigrants from China into the United States.
      • It was extended another 10 years in 1892
      • It was not repealed until 1943.
horizontal v vertical integration
Horizontal v. Vertical Integration



Vertical integration is when a company buys up the companies that produce resources for his company.

This was the practice of Carnegie and Carnegie Steel Company.

  • In this practice, a company buys up, or creates a trust with, all of the companies that produce a similar product to theirs.
    • Rockefeller used this to create Standard Oil.
    • This is the way most monopolies have been created.
  • There were 3 things the railroads did for the United States
    • They made westward expansion possible.
    • They led cities to specialize in certain industries.
    • They led to the development of time zones.