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What we know and what we do: From Teaching Knowledge to Teacher Development. Alan Pulverness Norwich Institute for Language Education. No handouts…but electronic copies available from: AlanPulverness@msn.com. ?. What knowledge do teachers need?. Two kinds of knowledge….

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what we know and what we do from teaching knowledge to teacher development
What we know and what we do:From Teaching Knowledge to Teacher Development

Alan Pulverness

Norwich Institute for Language Education

slide2
No handouts…but electronic

copies available from:

AlanPulverness@msn.com

slide3

?

What knowledge

do teachers need?

two kinds of knowledge
Two kinds of knowledge…
  • Declarative knowledge: knowing about…
  • Procedural knowledge: knowing how to…
and a third
…and a third

Tacit knowledge: what we know intuitively…

“We know more than we can tell”

(Michael Polanyi)

slide6

Describe language systems and language skills

  • Understand learners and how they learn
  • Be aware of different teaching

methodologies

  • Prepare and plan effective lessons
  • Select from a range of resources
  • Use the ‘language of teaching’
  • Understand different classroom management methods for different needs
slide7

?

What is TKT?

slide8

Describe language systems and language skills

  • Understand learners and how they learn
  • Be aware of different teaching

methodologies

  • Prepare and plan effective lessons
  • Select from a range of resources
  • Use the ‘language of teaching’
  • Understand different classroom management methods for different needs
tkt 3 free standing modules

Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching

Module 2 Lesson planning and use of resources for language teaching

Module 3 Managing the teaching and learning process

TKT – 3 free-standing modules
slide10

Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching

Part 1 Describing language

and language skills

  • grammar
  • lexis
  • phonology
  • functions
  • skills and subskills
slide11

Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching

Part 2 Background to language learning

  • motivation
  • exposure to language and focus on form
  • the role of error
  • differences between L1 and L2 learning
  • learner characteristics and needs
slide12

Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching

Part 3 Background to language teaching

  • presentation techniques
  • introductory activities
  • practice activities
  • tasks for language and skills development
  • assessment types and tasks
slide13

Module 2 Lesson planning and use of resources for language teaching

Part 1 Planning and preparing a lesson

or sequence of lessons

  • identify and select aims
  • components of a lesson plan
  • plan a lesson
  • choose and sequence activities
  • choose assessment activities
slide14

Module 2 Lesson planning and use of resources for language teaching

Part 2 Selection and use of resources

and materials

  • reference resources
  • selection and use of:

- coursebook materials

- supplementary materials and activities

- teaching aids

slide15

Module 3 Managing the teaching and learning process

Part 1 Teachers’ and learners’ language

in the classroom

  • functions of teacher language
  • functions of learners’ language
  • categorise learners’ mistakes
slide16

Module 3 Managing the teaching and learning process

Part 2 Classroom management

  • teacher roles
  • grouping
  • correcting
  • feedback
slide17

?

How can we develop our procedural know-how?

How can we make our tacit knowledge explicit?

your teaching history
Your teaching history
  • Can you identify the key stages in your development as a teacher?
  • Which of these stages were triggered in some way by external events or by contact with other people?
  • Which of them were brought about as a result of your own accumulating experience?
  • Can you see any patterns or threads in your own development?
what is teacher development
What is teacher development?
  • What does TD mean to you?
  • Why do you think it has become a buzzword?
  • What experiences have you had which could be classified as TD?
  • How does it happen?
  • How do you think it could happen?
teacher development
Teacher development…
  • …deals with the needs and wants of the individual teacher in ways that suit the individual...from confidence-building to language awareness or technical expertise.
  • …is often seen as relating to new experiences, new challenges and the opportunity for teachers to broaden their repertoire and take on new responsibilities...helps to fight a feeling of jadedness and to develop their careers as well as themselves.
teacher development1
Teacher development…
  • …is not just to do with language teaching or even teaching…can also be about language development, counselling skills, assertiveness training, confidence-building, computing, meditation, cultural broadening...
  • …has to be "bottom-up", not dished out by managers…managers may have a role... and managers should not stop organising in-service training.

[Richard Rossner, cited in Head & Taylor 1997]

how does td happen
30 minutes daily ‘quiet time’ to list personal action points.

2 colleagues try out a new idea for a month / discuss progress once a week.

Group of colleagues meet once a month to discuss a book or article all agree to read.

Group meets once a month to talk over problems individuals have encountered.

Taking a course on a non-ELT subject

Enrolling on a teacher training course.

Reviewing a book for a teachers’ journal.

Setting up a small-scale action research project and reporting on it at the next TEFLIN conference.

How does TD happen?
a framework for effective self monitoring
Select an aspect of your teaching you are interested in learning more about or wish to improve.

Find out more about it by:

- reflection on problems

- reviewing feedback

- inviting an observer

- reviewing current issues

and how they might relate

to your teaching

3. Narrow down your focus to what seems most important to you.

Develop a plan of action to address the specific problem area you have identified. What will you try to change? What effects will these changes have?

Draw up a time frame to try out new approaches and to monitor the effectiveness of the strategies you have chosen.

Decide on practical self-monitoring procedures.

Check to see if you have been successful.

[adapted from Richards 1990]

A framework for effective self-monitoring
slide31

Methods of data-collection

  • field notes
          • teacher diaries
  • audio recording
          • video recording
  • learner diaries
          • interviews
  • questionnaires
          • sociometry
  • still photographs
          • documentary evidence
  • case studies
          • observation
necessary conditions for classroom research
Necessary conditions for classroom research

Viability

Don’t tackle issues you can’t do anything about.

Discreteness

Only take on small-scale and relatively limited projects.

Intrinsic interest

Choose a topic that is important to you and your students, or one that you have to be involved with anyway in the course of your teaching.

intentional action planning
Intentional action planning

1 Only I can make my action plan, but I can be greatly assisted by the facilitation of another person.

2 An action plan should be treated with respect as a kind of personal contract.

3 The steps on it must be clear, practical and attainable. If not, then I am writing my own contract for failure.

4 The steps must take account of the problems that may arise and how to respond to them.

  • An action plan must be purged of wishful thinking.

[Adrian Underhill]

example sequence action planning after a period of learning
Example sequence: action planning after a period of learning

1 List the major possible learning points.

2 Choose just one of these points to work with.

3 List all the steps needed to put that point into action. Check that each step is concrete, clear and attainable.

  • Look at any possible problems and how best to respond to them.
  • Include any help you will need, where you will get it from, and how.
  • Specify your criteria for success.
  • Specify the time frame.

8 Decide how often you will review the plan.

classroom research
Classroom research…
  • “…is teacher development

made explicit”

(Maria Elena Perera de Perez, cited in

Head & Taylor 1997)

  • “…liberates teachers from their prejudices and allows their instincts to blossom.”

(Headmaster cited in McNiff 1988)

slide36
No handouts…but electronic

copies available from:

AlanPulverness@msn.com