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  1. Outline • Review Question Grading Mistake • Test Review • Inability of Labor Markets to Provide for All • Joblessness and Other Problems • Social Organization • Doug Massey and Segregation • Stop me at 3pm to talk about Fundraising Lose Ends and the Trip to Campus

  2. My Mistake…Didn’t give you credit for the following… MUST HAND IN AGAIN • Week 5    Poverty and Self Interest • Sociology 315 Assignment • Week 5 Readings • Due on Tuesday (2/9/10) • 1. In chapter 4, Rank argues that is in everyone’s self interest to conclude that “widespread poverty within our border is…unwise, unjust, and intolerable”(Rank 2005: 87). His first line of argument involves the risk of poverty across the American life course. For this question please describe what is meant by the term “life course” and explain how the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows researchers to study the life course.

  3. Exam 1 • What to say… • Median grade was a B …1/2 of you got a B or higher & ½ of you got a B or lower… 80% of you got a C or higher… • Exam was worth 20% of your grade…Next test worth another 20% • 40% of your grade is determined by the review questions… • If you’re not doing them, or not taking them seriously (and some of you are not)… you are making a serious mistake • When the review questions to date are combined with exam, some of you are in excellent shape…most of you are doing fine and moving in the right direction…some of you are in deep trouble…

  4. Rank and the Inability of the Labor Market to Support All Citizens • March 2010 US Census Bureau Release • Over 4 million full time workers are poor

  5. From Ghetto to Jobless Ghettoes “The manufacturing losses in some northern cities have been staggering”(Wilson 1996: 29) • North Lawndale Neighborhood in Chicago loses 57,000 manufacturing jobs Manufacturing Jobs Lost Between 1967-1987 Pct. ChangeTotal Lost • Philadelphia 64% 160,000 • Chicago 60% 500,000 • New York 58% >500,000 • Detroit 51% 108,000 • Note video clip on Blacks in the Steel Industry

  6. Joblessness & Ghetto Related Behavior…A “Culture of Poverty” • “…the residents of these jobless black poverty areas face certain social constraints on the choices they can make in their daily lives. These constraints, combined with restricted opportunities in the larger society, lead to ghetto-related behavior and attitudes- that is, behavior and attitudes that are found more frequently in ghetto neighborhoods than in neighborhoods that feature even modest levels of poverty and local employment. Ghetto-related behavior and attitudes often reinforce the economic marginality of the residents in jobless ghettos” (Wilson 1996: 52)

  7. Wilson on Structure and Culture • Wilson asks his readers to examine “social action- including behavior, habits, skills, styles, orientations attitudes” within a “broader structure of opportunities and constraints that have evolved over time”(Wilson 1996: 54). • Situationally Adaptive: Social Structure  Cultural Response Shapes the Social Structure • “This is not to argue that individuals and groups lack the freedom to make their own choices, engage in certain styles and orientations, but it is to say that these decisions and actions occur within a context of constraints and opportunities that are drastically different from those present in middle class society”(Wilson 1996: 55)

  8. Ghetto Related Behavior and the Structure of Opportunity • Wilson asks his readers to examine “social action- including behavior, habits, skills, styles, orientations attitudes” within a “broader structure of opportunities and constraints that have evolved over time”(Wilson 1996: 54). He urges us to note the urban poor make choices within a “context of constraints and opportunities that are drastically different from those of middle class society (Wilson 1996: 54). This does not mean you have to approve of such choices. As sociologists, you are asked to examine them within a broader context. • With this in mind, explain why drug dealing becomes a “reasonable” career choice for some of the people that Wilson interviews. Be sure to incorporate at least one direct quote from one of the interviewees into your answer.

  9. Drug Dealing as Rational Choice • “I’m a cocaine dealer -- cause I can’t get a decent ass job. So, what other choices do I have? I have to feed my family…do I work? I work. See…don’t bring me that bullshit. I been working since I was 15 years old. I had to work to take care of my mother and father and sisters.” p.58 • “Me myself I have sold marijuana. I’m not a drug pusher, but I’m just trying make ends—I’m trying to keep bread on the talbe- I have two babies.” p.58 • “Like I was saying, you can make more money dealing drubs than your job, anybody…I can take you to a place where cars come through like this all day – like traffic…” p.59

  10. Wilson • Maybe a rational choice for the individual, but high levels of drug activity bring other problems the community… • Violence and Guns • Turf battles, theft, crime…. • This affects norms and action of others not involved in drug trade • Others arm themselves… • Code of the Street evolves • Norms that provide for survival in high poverty neighborhoods, but which don’t transfer to mainstream society

  11. Outline • Wilson and Social Capital • Wilson and Bourdieu • Doug Massey and Segregation • Creating a Segregated America • Concentration of Poverty • Maintaining a Segregated America • The Effect of a Segregated America • Waiting to hear back from Minister…unless there are pressing issues, we will talk trip & fundraising next week • Please bring Reflection set #3 (the one’s that were due the day the ministers came) class next week.

  12. My Mistake…Didn’t give you credit for the following… MUST HAND IN AGAIN • Week 5    Poverty and Self Interest • Sociology 315 Assignment • Week 5 Readings • Due on Tuesday (2/9/10) • 1. In chapter 4, Rank argues that is in everyone’s self interest to conclude that “widespread poverty within our border is…unwise, unjust, and intolerable”(Rank 2005: 87). His first line of argument involves the risk of poverty across the American life course. For this question please describe what is meant by the term “life course” and explain how the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows researchers to study the life course.

  13. Wilson • High levels of drug activity bring other problems… • Neighborhoods become more dangerous… people “decrease their involvement in voluntary associations and informal social control networks essential to maintain the social organization of the neighborhood” (Wilson 1996: 61) • Can translate this from “soc-speak” to English?

  14. Neighborhood Social Organization (Wilson 1996: 20) • Less Social capital • Interpersonal networks, friendship networks, and networks of family relations that • Can be tapped for jobs and mobility • Enforce norms in society • In strong neighborhoods, social capital links households together and helps organize the community • Examples from Wilson? Or maybe your life?

  15. Wilson and Social Control • Neighborhoods with high levels of social organization that connect adults “by means of an extensive set of obligations, expectations, and social networks- are in a better position to control and supervise activities and behavior of children.” Wilson, p. 62 • Connected neighbors “observe, report on and discuss the behavior the children…networks reinforce discipline…because other adults assume responsibility for maintaining a public or social behavior even on the part of children that are not their own.” p. 62

  16. Neighborhood Social Organization (Wilson 1996: 20) • In High Poverty Neighborhoods • Networks often weaker, more social isolation • Work on Philly and Denver suggests social isolation is deliberately practiced by parents in dangerous neighborhoods • Networks that do exist may be helpful in “ghetto milieu” but less helpful in promoting well being of kids in larger society

  17. Beyond Informal Networks…Little Organizational Infrastructure • High Poverty Neighborhoods lack “strong organizational capacity or an institutional resource base that would provide an extra layer of social organization in their neighborhoods” (Wilson 1996: 64) • Low rates of residential participation in voluntary (PTO, block associations, neighborhood watch) formal organizations (churches, political parties) and inform networks (bowling teams, playgroups, card games)

  18. Economy State Civil Society in Middle Class Neighborhood Political Party Union Professional Association Neighborhood Watch Rotary Club Food Bank Church Bowling Team Individual

  19. Economy State Civil Society in Poor Neighborhood Informal Neighborhood Connections Food Bank Church Individual

  20. Economy State Civil Society in Middle Class Neighborhood Political Party Union Professional Association Neighborhood Watch Rotary Club Food Bank Church Bowling Team Individual

  21. Wilson and Social Control • “A weak institutional resource base is what distinguishes high jobless inner city neighborhoods form stable middle class and working class areas.” p. 64 • Weaker organizational basis and fewer institutional resources • Neighborhood Associations, Block Organizations, cub scouts, PTO, etc. • This a gap the CEM is trying to fill • Research shows that this makes it hard to control behavior in a neighborhood • “The higher the density and stability of formal organizations, the less the illicit activities such as drug trafficking, crime, prostitution, and gang formation can take root in the neighborhood.” p. 64

  22. When all is said and done… • “In short, social isolation deprives inner city residents not only of conventional role models, whose strong presence once buffered the effects of neighborhood joblessness, but also of the social resources (including social contacts) provided by mainstream social networks that facilitate social and economic advancement in a modern industrial society. (Wilson 1996: 66).

  23. Joblessness is about more than just money… • “…where jobs are scarce, where people rarely, if ever, have the opportunity to help their friends and neighbors find jobs, and where there is a disruptive or degraded school life purporting to prepare youngsters for eventual participation in the workforce, many people eventually lose their feeling of connectedness to work in the formal economy; they no longer expect work to be a regular, and regulating, force in their lives.” (Wilson, p.52) • What does it mean to say that work is about more than just money…?

  24. Bourdieu and Work • It is not just about making a living • “It constitutes a framework for daily behavior and patterns of interaction because it imposes disciplines and regularities.” p.73 • Without work and regular income a person lacks a “coherent organization of the present- that is a system of concrete expectations and goals.” • “Everybody needs someplace to go.”- Michael Chabon • Increased levels of depression, lack of self efficacy (feeling that you can take steps to achieve goals in a given situation) and hopelessness • “They took all the hope away.” – Man in Video • These feelings can spawn further problematic behavior • Substance Abuse

  25. Economic Restructuring, the surbanization of jobs, and Segregation • Economic Restructuring has big impact on African Americans given where their occupational distribution • Important to be clear…Most Blacks are not poor. • “Inner city African Americans are “overrepresented in areas of high to extremely high poverty concentration…” p.51 • And underpresented in the areas where job growth is now concentrated… • This has led to research aimed in understanding the concentration and segregation…

  26. Massey Supplements Wilson • “My purpose is to supplement Wilson’s theoretical argument by introducing residential segregation as a “key conditioning variable in the social transformation of the ghetto and to illustrate the crucial role it plays in concentrating poverty and creating the underclass” (Massey 1990: 330) • Massy’s argument: “In the absence of racial segregation, the economic dislocations of the 1970s would not have produced concentrated poverty or led to emergence of a socially and spatially isolated underclass.” (Massey, p.330)

  27. Suburbanization of Employment • Donut Shaped Development Share of Jobs within 3, 10, > 10 mile Radius of central city, 1996

  28. Urban population faced with suburban job growth… • Spatial Mismatch • The demand for labor has shifted away from neighborhoods where blacks are concentrated in favor of suburban areas • Chicago as an Example • 1970-1990, 60% of new jobs in Chicago area were created in the Northern Suburbs • Blacks are less than 2% of that population…How to explain this? • By 1990, Chicago Accounted for just 37% of the jobs in metro-region

  29. Back to Chicago…. • Why aren’t Blacks in the suburbs where the growth is? • Video Clip from the Promised Land • What prevented blacks from following whites to the new suburban neighborhoods that were built following World War II? • How did the city of Chicago decide to address the lack of housing for blacks in Chicago? • You will sometimes hear the term “perpendicular segregation, “vertical ghettoes” or “ghettoes in the sky.” Explain what is meant by these terms. • How did people seem to like the Robert Taylor homes?

  30. Creating a Segregated America • Deliberate private and public choices made by Whites…Let’s explore. • American Apartheid, Massey and Denton

  31. Creating a Segregated America • Restrictive Covenants (note next slide) • Legally binding contracts signed by neighborhood residents to keep blacks out of neighborhood • Property owners agreed not to permit a black to own, occupy or lease property • Usually valid for 20 years and became enforceable when 75% of homeowners in an area had signed. • Used widely from 1910 until 1948 • Federal Government urged their use until 1950

  32. Creating a Segregated America • White engaged in violent attacks, mob behavior…intimidation • Whites Formed Neighborhood Organizations to non-violently apply pressure • Lobbied for zoning restrictions on housing • Boycott realtors who deal with blacks • Boycott businesses who deal with blacks • Collect funds to buy property from sellers (Archie Bunker) • Buyout blacks

  33. Creating a Segregated America • Survey of Real Estate Agents (1950s): • 80% refused to sell blacks property in white neighborhoods • 56% simply refused to deal with blacks

  34. Creating a Segregated America: Government Role • White Public opinion favors discrimination: • “Do you think there should be separate sections in towns and cities for Negroes to live in?” • 84% of Whites say yes in 1942 • Federal Housing Authority Underwriting Manual, 1939 • “if a neighborhood is to retain stability, it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes.”

  35. Creating a Segregated America: Government Role • Overtly Discriminatory Government Policies • Federal Housing Authority recommends use of restrictive covenants • Recommendation remains in underwriting manual even after Supreme Court rules restrictive covenants unconstitutional

  36. Creating a Segregated America: Government Role • Government Lending Agents engage in Redlining • the practice of financial lenders refusing to grant home and commercial loans in minority and racially changing neighborhood • Neighborhoods rated into 4 categories • Black neighborhoods rated in lowest categories • “within such a low price or rent range as to attract undesirable elements.” • Areas would be outlined in red pen and denied loans

  37. Building the suburbs…neglecting the cities… • In 1966, Paterson and Camden New Jersey both had no FHA loans. • Nassau County in Long Island had 60 times more loans than the Bronx. • With no loans, houses can’t be maintained • Without access to credit, houses can’t be purchased…and sold, which depresses wealth in these communities

  38. Massey and Denton, American Apartheid “Given the importance of the FHA in the residential housing market, such blanket redlining sent strong signals to private lending institutions, which followed suit and avoided making loans within affected areas. The lack of loan capital flowing into minority areas made it impossible for owners to sell their homes, leading to steep declines in property values and a pattern of disrepair, deterioration, vacancy and abandonment. Thus by the 1950s, many cities were locked in a spiral of decline that was directly encouraged and largely supported by federal housing policies. As poor blacks from the south entered cities in large numbers, middle class whites fled to the suburbs to escape them and to insulate themselves from the social problems that accompanied the rising tide of poor.”

  39. Maintaining the Ghetto • If Blacks can’t spread out…What do you do? What did they do in Chicago? • Build Up. • 1950s and 1960s Government Housing Projects • Decent Modern Accommodations • Projects often nice • But still Segregation… • Reservations in the Sky,Vertical or Perpendicular Ghettos

  40. Maintaining the Ghetto… • Double edged sword…New but segregated • By both race and class • “The replacement of low density slums with high-density towers of poor families also reduced the class diversity of the ghetto and brought about a geographic concentration of poverty that was previously unimaginable. This new segregation of blacks – in economic as well as social terms- was the direct result of unprecedented collaboration between local and national government.” • Massey and Denton, p.57

  41. Explaining Concentrated Poverty • Concentrated Poverty as result of “strong interaction” between the level of segregation and changes in the structure of income distribution.” (Massey, p.331) • Bumper Sticker • High Poverty Rate + High Segregation Rate= Highest Levels of Poverty Concentration • Massey uses a model to show the mechanism that leads to this situation… • Try not to have a brain hemorrhage… try to follow the logic …I am not going to show you the math and equations…if you interested you can look at the original article: • American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass Author(s): Douglas S. Massey Source: The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 2 (Sep., 1990), pp. 329-357 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable

  42. Massey’s Model…A Picture of America…1970 • Blacks not permitted into many sectors of the economy, and therefore have higher rates of poverty • Black poverty level in City X is 20% • White poverty level in City X is 10% • Picture more or less corresponds to NYC and Chicago

  43. Massey’s Model: A city without Segregation • If Blacks & Whites live in integrated neighborhoods poverty rate in all neighborhoods is 12.5%

  44. Massey’s Model…If Blacks are Barred from 4 Northern Neighborhoods…Average white environment improves as poverty reduced • All Black experience a poverty rate of 13.3% • Some Whites live in neighborhoods with 10% poor (no Blacks)…on average White are in neighborhoods with poverty rate of 12.2%

  45. As segregation increases, so does level of poverty in Black communities…while level in White communities drops • All Whites live in segregated community…White poverty is 10%...so that is the avg. for each neighborhood • All Blacks live in segregated community…Black poverty is 20%...so that is the avg. for each neighborhood

  46. Now add class segregation to racial segregation… • Middle class blacks leave poorest neighborhoods • Class segregation reduces poverty in the non-poor neighborhoods and increases it on the poor sides… • Watch…

  47. Racial Segregation w/ Class Segregation & Poor Blacks become concentrated in HIGH POVERTY NEIGHBORHOODS • Poor blacks concentrated in high poverty areas

  48. Now add class segregation to racial segregation… • Class segregation reduces poverty in the non-poor neighborhoods and increases it on the poor sides… • “The imposition of racial segregation on a residential structure that is also segregated works to the detriment of poor blacks and to the benefit of poor whites”(Massey 1990: 336). • All poor Blacks end up in neighborhoods with 40% poverty

  49. Massey’s Main Finding... • “In a segregated environment, any exogenous economic shock that causes a downward shift in the distribution of minority income (e.g., the closing of factories, the mechanization of production, the suburbanization of employment) will not only bring about an increase in the poverty rate for the group as a whole, it will also cause an increase in the geographic concentration of poverty” (Massey 1990: 337). • The economic shock is concentrated… “confined to a small number of minority neighborhoods; the greater the segregation, the smaller the number of neighborhoods absorbing the shock, and the more severe the resulting concentration of poverty”(Massey 1990: 337) • Can anyone interpret this?