AP Macromolecules Formative Assessment: Chapter 5
#1 • What category of macromolecules? • Is this a monomer or a polymer? • What specific name would this molecule have? • Why is one of the hydrocarbon chains kinked?
#2 • What category of macromolecules? • Is this a monomer or a polymer? • What specific name would this molecule have? • What causes the cross-linking between chains?
#3 • What category of macromolecules? • Is this a monomer or a polymer? • What specific name would this molecule have? • What is the source of variation in this chain?
#4 • What category of macromolecules? • Is this a monomer or a polymer? • What specific name would this molecule have? • How would these be linked together?
Functions? • Stores heredity information. • Primary energy source in cells. • Cell wall structure. • Forms waxes. • Precursor to steriod hormones. • Act as transport molecules, enzymes, and contractile molecules. • Store energy long-term in plants. • Amphipathic. • Codes for proteins. • Self-replicates.
Case Study: Reflux in babies • Reflux is a condition where babies spit up their milk; it is usually reduced by 8 months. • A treatment that has been suggested in the past is adding rice cereal to formula to thicken it. • This treatment is in question: • Does it change the nutritional content of food? (And how might this impact the infant?) • Does it work for babies fed breast milk by a bottle? You are going to do a lab to draw some conclusions about this treatment.
Goal of Today’s Lab: • Does adding rice cereal to baby formula change its nutritional content? • You will form a hypothesis and accept or reject the hypothesis based on the data you collect. • Then you will evaluate the treatment based on the data. • We will use indicators to test baby food for 4 nutritional categories: • Lipids: Sudan III/IV? • Proteins: Biuret’s • Monosaccharides: Benedict’s • Polysaccharides: Iodine
Positive and Negative Controls • Used to validate chemical tests—Why? • + Control: something that will test positive; and verify a + result • - Control: something that will test negative; and verify a – result. • False +: Positive result when there should be a negative • False -: Negative result when there should be a positive
For your lab (document in your lab notebook): • Introduction: • For the indicator you are assigned: how does it work? Think of the theme “structure meets function” • Hypothesis: • Using the information on the rice cereal box, make an overall hypothesis about whether or not rice cereal will change the nutritional content of baby formula. • Methods: • Document how to test your macromolecule and determine an appropriate +/- control. • As a group, type out a set of directions for your classmates (and the freshmen) to use! • Design a table to record the results of each of the controls. • Data and Analysis: • Design one table to include the prediction, result and analysis for each of the tests performed on the baby food. You may also want to include the nutritional facts for each test to show your prediction. • Conclusions: • Accept or reject each hypothesis based on data you collected. Explain why you think you saw these results! • Use the information collected to address the overall hypothesis and then explain why you would/would not recommend the treatment. • Discuss false positives and negatives as seen in the data. Explain the importance of having controls in terms of experimental error. • Research why this treatment doesn’t work for breast fed babies (hint…there is something in breast milk that changes the starch. • Draw conclusions about the nutritional content of baby formula compared to an adult diet. Can babies get all the nutrients they need from formula? Are there certain nutrients that are not usually present in an adult diet?