the war to end war n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The War to End War PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The War to End War

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

The War to End War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The War to End War. 1917-1918. Wilson and Neutrality. January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare This proclamation voided the earlier agreement between Wilson and Germany Germany hoped that the US would remain neutral and stop supplying Britain before entering war

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The War to End War' - paniz

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
wilson and neutrality
Wilson and Neutrality
  • January 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare
  • This proclamation voided the earlier agreement between Wilson and Germany
  • Germany hoped that the US would remain neutral and stop supplying Britain before entering war
  • Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany
war by act of germany
War by Act of Germany
  • Wilson asked congress for authority to arm US merchant ships
  • Senators filibuster
  • Zimmerman Telegram: Germany asks Mexico to invade US, promising AZ, NM and TX
  • German submarines sank 4 US merchant ships in early March 1917
  • Revolution in Russia
  • April 1917, Declaration of war
wilson idealism enthroned
Wilson Idealism Enthroned
  • Many still not convinced that war was necessary
  • Decision not unanimous in Congress
  • “America could be isolationists or crusaders, but nothing in between”
  • Twin goals of war:
    • “War to End War”
    • “To make the world safe for democracy”
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Wilson became known as the moral leader of allied cause
  • 14 points given in January 1918: hoped to keep Russia in war (didn’t work)
    • 1. Proposal to abolish secret treaties
    • 2. Freedom of the seas
    • 3. Removal of economic barriers among nations
    • 4. Reduction of armament burdens
    • 5. Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the colonizers and native people
    • 6. League of Nations- collective security
committee of public information
Committee of Public Information
  • Headed by George Creel, journalist
  • 75,000 propaganda speakers
  • Posters
  • Leaflets and pamphlets
  • Movies
  • Relied on aroused passion and voluntary compliance
  • Everything blamed on Germans
    • Sauerkraut= liberty cabbage
    • Hamburger= liberty steak
  • Espionage Act (1917)
  • Sedition Act (1918)
  • Targeted anti-war activists
  • Eugene Debs arrested in 1918
  • Schenck v. US- Supreme Court ruled that 1st amendment could be revoked when it posed a danger to the nation
wartime workforce
Wartime Workforce
  • “work or fight”: unemployed males would be drafted
  • National Labor Board: chaired by William Taft, pushed for high wages and 8 hour work days, but not the right to unionize
  • American Federation of Labor supported war efforts, did not threaten to strike
  • Industrial Workers of the World did protest during war, and were beaten and arrested
wartime workforce1
Wartime workforce
  • Coal mining, manufacturing and transportation saw wage increases after war
  • Steel Strike of 1919:
    • Industry leaders refused to recognize union
    • brought in African American workers
    • bloody protests left many dead
    • Strike collapsed, setback to unions
african americans in the workplace
African Americans in the Workplace
  • Many southern AA moved north during war looking for jobs
  • Sometimes met with racist violence
  • 1917 riot in in Missouri left 49 dead
  • Violence in Chicago (1919)
women during war
Women during War
  • Some suffragist were pacifists, demonstrated against war
  • Many women supported war
  • Wilson supported suffrage
  • 19th amendment (1920)
  • Women went to work in many war industries
  • Many women gave up jobs once men came home
wartime economy
Wartime Economy
  • Herbert Hoover selected to lead Food Administration (had led relief effort of Belgium)
  • Hoover used propaganda to encourage voluntarily saving food for exports
  • Victory gardens, sheep on White House lawn
  • War helped prohibition: 18th amendment (1919)
  • Farm production increased as did food exports
wartime economy1
Wartime Economy
  • Americans encouraged to conserve fuel
  • Treasury Dept. raised $21 billion in bonds
  • Many were pressured into bonds to prove their patriotism
  • Federal gov. took control of railroads
  • Seized enemy merchant ships
  • Conscription
  • No exemptions, except in crucial industries
  • Army grew from 100,000 pre-war soldiers to over 4 million
  • Women allowed in military for 1st time
  • AA served in segregated battalions
fighting in europe
Fighting in Europe
  • Russia withdraws troops in 1918
  • Germany now could concentrate on fighting in western Europe
  • US troops begin to arrive in France a year after war declared
  • US soldiers also fight in Belgium, Italy, Russia
  • US invaded Russia to protect munitions
  • Expedition into Siberia to rescue Czech troops
  • Germany pressing west toward Paris
  • Americans key in second Battle of the Marne (July 1918)
  • General John Pershing led 1.2 million US soldiers in the Meuse-Argonne campaign featured heavy fighting with high casualties near the Argonne Forest
  • Alvin York (from an antiwar family) killed 20 Germans and captured 132 single-handedly
final days
Final Days
  • German allies were deserting them
  • British blockade creating food shortages
  • Propaganda leaflets were spreading across the German front
  • Germany turned to Wilson and his 14 points
  • Wilson required that the Kaiser be removed before peace could be obtained
  • Kaiser fled to the Netherlands
  • 11,11,11
  • Main US contributions had been food, supplies, money and oil
wilson a hero abroad
Wilson a Hero Abroad
  • Wilson a hero throughout Europe for ending war
  • Wilson sat at the head of the mightiest nation on earth
peace at home
Peace at Home
  • Republicans gain a majority in Congress in 1918
  • No president had ever traveled to Europe, but Wilson went after war
  • Refused to bring any Republican Senators
idealism vs imperialism
Idealism vs. Imperialism
  • Crowds welcomed Wilson, but leaders worried
  • Paris Conference featured “Big 4” (US, GB, Italy and France)
  • Europe worried about communist spillover from Russia
  • Territories of conquered would be overseen by League of Nations
the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Republican opposition at home empowered European leaders against Wilson
  • France demanded part of Germany (administered by League for 15 years)
  • GB and US agree to aid France in future
  • Italy demanded part of Yugoslavia
  • Japan demanded German islands in Pacific
  • Japan also demanded part of China, which was to be returned at a later date
the treaty leads to trouble
The Treaty Leads to Trouble
  • Germany forced to accept treaty void of 14 points
  • Wilson had to compromise
  • Isolationists in US despised Treaty
  • Some felt that it wasn’t harsh enough on Germany
  • Others felt it went to far
american deadlock
American Deadlock
  • Republicans sought to change treaty
  • Wilson undertook a nationwide tour to gain support for the treaty
  • Wilson had a long history of illness, and in Sep. 1919 he collapsed in Colorado
  • A stroke partially paralyzed Wilson back in DC
  • Wilson did not meet with his cabinet for 7 months
american deadlock1
American Deadlock
  • Congress upset over the requirement that US would come to the aid of other attacked nations
  • Amended “republican" treaty rejected, twice
  • Treaty never approved by Congress
election of 1920
Election of 1920
  • Republicans nominate Warren Harding
  • Harding makes mixed statements about Treaty
  • Newly enfranchised women help Harding carry the victory
  • Without US support the treaty was doomed to fail in Europe
  • US goes back to isolationism