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Decontamination of Infectious Wastes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Decontamination of Infectious Wastes. Infectious Wastes. What are infectious wastes?? Depends on whose regulations your situation falls under Regulatory Authority for Infectious Wastes EPA (RCRA, MWT, CAA) OSHA (OSHAct; sharps, BBP) DOT (inter- and intrastate transport)

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infectious wastes
Infectious Wastes
  • What are infectious wastes??
    • Depends on whose regulations your situation falls under
  • Regulatory Authority for Infectious Wastes
    • EPA (RCRA, MWT, CAA)
    • OSHA (OSHAct; sharps, BBP)
    • DOT (inter- and intrastate transport)
    • CDC (Biosafety Guidelines w/NIH)
    • States
professional organizations
Professional Organizations
  • Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO)
  • National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)
  • Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
  • American Biosafety Association (ABSA)
thermal inactivation
Thermal Inactivation
  • Factors affecting heat resistance of microbes:
    • Age
    • Growth Phase
    • Growth Temperature
    • Sublethal Heating
    • Nutrient Conditions
    • pH
    • Antibiotics
    • Cation Exchange
  • Other treatments affecting heat resistance:
    • Hydrostatic Pressures
    • Ionizing Radiation
    • Chemical Treatment (e.g. hydrogen peroxide)
    • Other Substances
thermal inactivation1
Thermal Inactivation
  • Factors Affecting Dry Heat Destruction
    • Temperature
    • Microbial Water Content
    • Control of Water Content During Heating
    • Encapsulation in Crystals and Solids
    • Gas Atmosphere
    • Added Solutes
    • Lipids
traditional waste treatment and disposal
Traditional Waste Treatment and Disposal
  • Incineration
    • 2400 MW incinerators in operation
    • 846,000 toms of MW
    • Reduce to non-combustible ash (870-980ºC; 1093ºC)
  • Autoclaving
    • Laboratory: 121ºC at 15psi for 30 minutes
    • Commercial: 135ºC at 60-75 psi for 1 hour
alternative treatment processes
Alternative Treatment Processes
  • Thermal Processes
    • Rotoclav (144ºC at 48 psi for 65 minutes)
    • Sani-Pak Sterilizers (32 psi, 132ºC then 139-140ºC; 30 minutes)
    • Chemi-Clav (continuous feed; sodium hypochlorite and water; 96-116ºC for 30 minutes)
    • Microwave Treatment (1.2 kW; 95-100ºC for 30 minutes)
    • Electro-Thermal Deactivation (ETD) (low-frequency radiowaves used to heat 93ºC
    • Bio-oxidation/pyrolysis (93-538ºC then 982-1093ºC)
    • Plasma Pyrolysis (electrically charged gas; same results as incineration but no emissions problems)
alternative waste treatment processes
Alternative Waste Treatment Processes
  • Chemical Processes
    • Peracetic acid (Ecocycle 10)
    • Degradables Processing (Polyvinyl alcohol products; Orex DP2000; 82-95ºC)
    • Alkaline Hydrolysis (WR2 Tissue Digestor; 121-148ºC at 10-75 psi for 3-18 hours)
  • Irradiation
    • E-beams