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Decontamination procedures

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Decontamination procedures

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  1. Decontamination procedures

  2. General decontamination • Decontamination prevents spreading of the contamination. • Always decontaminate from top to bottom, or from head to feet. • At decontamination, water should have a temperature between 15-35 °Celsius or 59-95 °Fahrenheit. • Beware of secondary contamination.

  3. General decontamination • Decontamination prevents spreading of the contamination • Decontaminating people is meant to prevent further spreading of the contamination.

  4. General decontamination • Water temperature at decontamination may not be lower than 15°C or 59°F otherwise this causes increased chance of hypothermia and increases adsorption. • Water temperature at decontamination may not be higher than 35°C or 95 °F otherwise this causes increased chance of sweat excretion and increases adsorption.

  5. General decontamination • Always decontaminate form head to feet. When proceeding in this manner, you keep the casualties’ head best protected. • The head is decontaminated first. • The head cannot be contaminated again during decontamination. • At decontamination, clean areas must be kept clean. • Do not use hard brushes

  6. General decontamination • Decontaminating personel should wear protective clothing at all times. • Always install flow of decontamination opposite of the wind direction, so people cannot be contaminated anew.

  7. Contamination Contamination Viral contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal Internal Internal External radiation External radiation External External External External External contamination External contamination Internal contamination Internal contamination

  8. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Viral contamination • Rescue personnel should be vaccinated and clothed in protective clothing. • Isolate and/or quarantine people who have been exposed to the virus, and decontaminate them. • Destroy contaminated animals and foodstuff, dead animals should be incinerated or buried. • Vehicles and persons coming out of the contaminated zone must be decontaminated. • Contact between contaminated and clean zone should be kept to a minimum. • The least amount possible traffic between the zones. • No transportation of animals and as little as possible transportation of people.

  9. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Viral contamination • Rescue personnel are the first to come in contact with the casualties and/or the contaminated area, they must be protected against (secondary) contamination. • Rescue personnel must be vaccinated against the particular case of virus. • Rescue personnel must be wearing protective clothing.

  10. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Viral contamination • People from the contaminated area must be isolated or be put in quarantine. • Isolation: People contaminated with the virus must be kept separated from the rest of the population to prevent spreading. These people will be decontaminated and cured of the virus. • Quarantine: People who have been exposed to the virus, but have not become ill, will be separated from the rest of the population to prevent spreading. These people will be decontaminated.

  11. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Viral contamination • Animals involved with the virus must be destroyed. • Involved animals include: • Animals from which the virus originates. • Animals that could be infected with the virus that have lived in the contaminated area. • Foodstuffs of animals originating from one of the above criteria. • Destruction: • Slaughtering of the animals • Burning or burying of the animals and foodstuffs.

  12. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Viral contamination • To keep spreading of the virus as limited as possible, it is essential to act as fast as possible.

  13. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area • The decontamination area is divided in three zones; • The hot zone • The warm zone • The cold zone • The area is set up in opposite direction of the wind direction!

  14. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area Hot zone: This is the area directly around the source of the virus. This is where the virus rages. Only rescue personnel wearing protective clothing may enter this area.

  15. Cold zone Contamination Warm zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area Warm zone: This is the area around the hot zone. The fire department states what the measurements of this area are. Distance from the hot zone to the cold zone must be at least 25 meters, because certain substances are able to advance 10 meters against the wind direction. In this zone, people can be isolated or quarantined. Life saving medical treatments and the decontamination of people and vehicles will be carried out in this zone. Medical personnel is active in this zone. All rescue personnel wear protective clothing. Decontaminated peope and vehicles exit to the cold zone.

  16. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area Cold zone: This is the area where the virus is eliminated. Severely injured people are transported to the hospital with ambulances. People can be isolated or quarantined here as well, under certain circumstances, abiding special countermeasures

  17. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Quarantine and Isolation • For putting people in quarantine or isolating them, you have two options. • Proceed in the warm zone • Proceed in the cold zone • For putting people in quarantine and isolating people, the same system can be applied, however, you cannot keep both groups together in the same system.

  18. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Warm zone • In the warm zone the virus rages outside the shelter. People must be separated from the outside world, therefore, overpressure is required inside the shelter. • Clean air from the cold zone is sucked in and blown in the shelter. By keeping the pressure inside the shelter higher than outside, air is constantly blown out of the shelter. • No contaminated air can get into the shelter.

  19. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area

  20. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination cold zone • In case the shelter is placed in the cold zone, under pressure is required inside the shelter. • Inside the shelter virus rages, but outside the air is clean. By constantly sucking air out of the shelter and filtering it, contaminated cannot get out of the shelter. • Through the underpressure inside the shelter, clean air is drawn in. • Air drawn out of the shelter can be collected, but also mixed with the outer air after filtering.

  21. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area

  22. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Decontamination of non injured persons • Vaccinate • Administer antiviral agents • Post decontamination checking • Cold zone

  23. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Decontamination of non injured persons • Cold zone: • Once the casualty is clean and post checked, he/she may proceed to the cold zone. • Post checking: • Post decontamination check to ascertain the casualty is clean. If the casualty is not clean, the decontamination process must be repeated. • Vaccinate: • Contaminated people must be vaccinated to lose the influenza contagion they have acquired.

  24. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Decontamination of injured persons • Injured persons proceed from the hot zone to the warm zone. • Life saving medical treatments are applied. • Decontaminate. • Hospital.

  25. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Decontamination of injured persons • Life saving medical treatments are applied: • Medical rescue personnel carry out life saving procedures. • Injured persons proceed from the hot zone to the warm zone: • Injured persons are escorted to the warm zone by the rescue personnel. When the casualties cannot walk, they will be carried into the shelter. • Decontaminate: • contaminated injuries are first decontaminated with water and soap with a neutral pH-value. • Hospital: • After treating directly life threatening issues, injured persons will be transported to the hospital, where they will receive further help with their injuries. After being treated at the hospital for their injuries, they will be completely decontaminated, and in case of a lowered immunesystem, will have an antiviral agent administered.

  26. Contamination Contamination Viral contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal Internal Internal External radiation External radiation External External External External External contamination External contamination Internal contamination Internal contamination

  27. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital

  28. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination • Chemical contamination can be internal and external by; • Gasses • Fluids • Solids

  29. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area • The decontamination area is divided in three zones; • The hot zone • The warm zone • The cold zone • The area is set up in opposite direction of the wind direction!

  30. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area hot zone: This is the area directly around the source of the contamination. Only rescue personnel wearing protective clothing may enter this area.

  31. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area warm zone: This is the area around the hot zone. The fire department states what the measurements of this area are. Distance from the hot zone to the cold zone must be at least 25 meters, because certain substances are able to advance 10 meters against the wind direction. In this zone, people can be isolated or quarantined. Life saving medical treatments and the decontamination of people and vehicles will be carried out in this zone. Medical personnel is active in this zone. All rescue personnel wear protective clothing. Decontaminated peope and vehicles exit to the cold zone.

  32. cold zone Contamination hot zone Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination hot zone Wind Source Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Decon Internal contamination The Area cold zone: This is the area where there’s no danger. Severely injured people are transported to the hospital with ambulances.

  33. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital Cut contaminated clothing on the back upward. Clothing will then fall away from the face. Do not pull away clothing which sticks to the skin due to frostbite or burns. Have it removed by qualified medical personel.

  34. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital Always perform live saving actions first!

  35. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital If toxins react with water use a mineral oil or oil used for food preparation. If toxins react with air, keep the victim wet at all times, continuous showering or using wet towels, bandages or alike. In this case, do not use oils. This might cause absorption of the toxins in the skin.

  36. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital If casualties have been exposed to toxic gasses, after removing clothing, there can only be internal contamination. Always transport casualties to a hospital for examination.

  37. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital If casualties have been exposed to liquid contaminants, always check the kind of liquid(s) and decontaminate accordingly. Clothing and personal belongings should be packed in airtight bags or shelters. Provide emergency clothing after decontamination.

  38. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Contamination with fluids • Risk of absorption of fluids by the human body can increase if the following is not taken into account; • large surface of contact; clothing, blankets... • temperature increase of the contaminant by body temperature, remove clothing as fast as possible • air humidty • increased room temperatures also may cause absorption of the contaminants in the skin due to perspiration and vasodilation.

  39. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Contamination with fluids • When contaminated with dangerous fluids, there are two ways of decontamination; • Dry decontamination • Wet decontamination

  40. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Contamination with fluids • Dry decontamination: • de contaminant is absorbt by tissues or high absorbing powders. • Advantages: • Large quantities can be held in stock • You can see which body parts already have been decontaminated • Wounded and injured can easily be helped on site. They do not have to be hospitalized. • Disadvantages: • Dust clouds caused by powders can harm machines and electrical equipment.

  41. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Contamination with fluids • Wet decontamination: • Wash of exposed skin and hair extensively with luke warm water. Use a mild soap for oily and highly absorbing chemicals. Wash eyes thoroughly with water or saline. • Collect the waste water.

  42. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital Contact an advisor on hazardous materials (health officer). Clothing and personal belongings should be packed in airtight bags or shelters. Use a soft brush to brush of the dust and particles. Brush form head to toe. Collect the dust and store in a suitable shelter. Beware of open wounds. Decontaminate according to the directions of the advisor. Provide emergency clothing.

  43. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital If a casualty is (suspected) internally contaminated, he or she is to be transferred to a hospital for examination. Internal contamination is to be treated there. One van be internally contaminated by inhalation, ingestion and through the skin.

  44. Contamination Chemical contamination Chemical contamination Remove clothing Remove clothing Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Perform life-saving actions Perform life-saving actions Contamination with gas Contamination with gas Contamination with fluids Contamination with fluids Contamination with solids Contamination with solids Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination? Internal contamination? Yes Yes No No Internal contamination Hospital Hospital If there is no internal contamination, the person is decontaminated and clean. The person can be transferred to the cold zone.

  45. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination injured people • Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot zone • Stabilize and decontaminate victims • Hospital

  46. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination injured people • Emergency rescue collects victims from the hot zone • Non ambulant victims will be carried out on stretchers. • Near de line between the hot zone and the warm zone clothing will be removed from the casualty. Clothing will be stored in airtight bags or shelters. Casualties will be transferred to the warm zone on a clean stretcher. • Casualties who can walk by themselves will be handed over to the medical personnel. They also will have there clothing removed and packed.

  47. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination injured people • Stabilize and decontaminate victims • In the warm zone casualties will be stabilized and partially decontaminated whereafter they will be transferred to a hospital.

  48. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination injured people • Hospital: • In hospital casualties will be decontaminated completely and there injuries and wounds will be attended to.

  49. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination non injured people • Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot zone • Decontaminate victims • Hospital or cold zone

  50. Contamination Viral contamination Chemical contamination Biological contamination Radioactive contamination Internal Internal External radiation External External External contamination Internal contamination Chemical decontamination non injured people • Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot zone • After collecting the victims from the hot zone, emergency rescue lead them to the decon area. The victims will be received and assisted by the decon personnel.