Ch 43- Immune system. Immune system. Defends body against disease Pathogens – agents of disease (bacteria, viruses, protists ) Non specific immunity (innate immunity) All animals & plants have defenses effective immediately upon infection Specific immunity (adaptive or acquired immunity)
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- circulate within hemolymph and carry out phagocytosis, the ingestion and digestion of foreign substances including bacteria
- also secrete antimicrobial peptides that disrupt the plasma membranes of fungi and bacteria
Interstitial receptors (TLRs) that recognize molecular patterns characteristic of certain pathogensfluid
Masses ofdefensive cells
Mature B cell
Mature T cell
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Activated by cytokines, from helper T cells
- aid in recognition of “self”
- Class I – found on nearly all body cells
- can present fragments of proteins made by infecting microbes to cytotoxic T cells
- Class II – made by some cells of immune system
- macrophages & B cells
- molecules collect remnants of microbes and present them to helper T cells
Primary immune response result of shuffling and recombining several gene segments to produce the proteinto antigen A producesantibodies to A.
Secondary immune response toantigen A produces antibodies to A;primary immune response to antigenB produces antibodies to B.
Antibody concentration(arbitrary units)
Exposure to antigens A and B
Exposureto antigen A