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Ch. 43 Reproductive System. By: Brianna Shields June 6, 2006. GOAL. Describe how sperm are produced Identify the major structures of the male reproductive system Sequence the path taken by sperm as they leave the body Describe how eggs are produced

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ch 43 reproductive system

Ch. 43 Reproductive System

By: Brianna Shields

June 6, 2006

  • Describe how sperm are produced
  • Identify the major structures of the male reproductive system
  • Sequence the path taken by sperm as they leave the body
  • Describe how eggs are produced
  • Identify the major structures of the female reproductive system
  • Analyze the events of the ovarian and menstrual cycles
  • Sequence the events of fertilization, cleavage and implantation
  • Summarize the three trimesters of pregnancy
  • Describe the effects of drug use on development
  • Identify the causes and symptoms of several bacterial STDs
  • Identify the causes and symptoms of several viral STDs
  • Compare the treatment and cure rates of viral STDs with those of bacterial STDs
male reproductive system

Two, egg-shaped, located in scrotum sacs

Gamete producing organs

Hang externally (temperature is 3 degrees lower than the body’s temperature)- normal body temp is too high for sperm production

Seminiferous tubules- coiled tubules packed inside testis that produce sperm cells through meiosis

Testes regulated by pituitary

Luteinizing hormone- stimulates secretion of sex hormone testosterone

Follicle stimulating hormone- stimulates sperm production

Male Reproductive System
male reproductive system4

Several hundred million sperm cells produced each day

Created in seminiferous tubules

Travel to epididymis tube where they mature (and are stored)

Enter long tube: vas deferens that connects to urethra

Sperm exits body through urethra duct (just like urine does)

Male Reproductive System
male reproductive system6

Sperm structure

Head- contains enzymes for penetrating egg (only head enters egg)

Midsection- contains mitochondria for powering the sperm

Tail- powerful whip-like flagella for locomotion

Male Reproductive System
male reproductive system8


Sperm in urethra mix with fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands

Seminal Vesicle Fluid- rich in sugars to provide sperm with energy

Prostate Gland Fluid- alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidity in female reproductive tract

Bulbourethral Gland Fluid- alkaline fluid that neutralizes traces of urine left in urethra

Male Reproductive System
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Sperm Delivery

Sperm exits urethra through penis during ejaculation (forceful release of semen)

During sexual arousal, blood flow to penis increases causing it to become rigid and erect

Once penis deposits semen in female reproductive system, the sperm must swim to the egg in order to fertilize it

Men with less than 20 million sperm per ml are considered sterile

Male Reproductive System
  • Sequence the path that mature sperm take from the testes to the outside of the body
  • Describe the role of each part of a mature sperm cell
  • How do secretions by exocrine glands help the delivery of sperm to the female reproductive system
  • Describe the functions of the testes
female reproductive system
Production of Eggs

Ovaries- egg shaped, found in abdominal cavity, produce female gametes (egg cells)

Egg cells stall in prophase at beginning of meiosis into female hits puberty (hormones enable meiosis to resume)

Females are born with all of the immature egg cells that they will ever have

Only 300-400 egg cells will mature over a female’s lifetime

Ovum- mature egg cell

Female Reproductive System
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Structures of the female reproductive system

Ovary- egg releases once every 28 days

Fallopian tube- when released from the ovary, cilia sweep the egg into and through this passageway

Journey through fallopian tube takes 3-4 days

If egg is not fertilized with 24-48 hours it dies

Female Reproductive System
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Structures of the female reproductive system

Egg reaches uterus (small fist sized organ)

If fertilized, egg will develop here

Vagina- muscular tube where sperm are deposited during sexual intercourse

Sperm must swim up through vagina, cervix and into uterus

Female Reproductive System
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Ovarian Cycle

Ovaries release an ovum

Follicular Phase

Regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary

In ovary, egg cells mature within follicles (cluster of cells surrounding egg)

Follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone are released into bloostream

Follicle produces estrogen

Female Reproductive System
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Ovarian Cycle


Follicle produces large amounts of estrogen, stimulating pituitary to increase secretion of LH

LH causes egg cell to complete first meiotic division

Follicle and ovary rupture, ovulation occurs

Female Reproductive System
female reproductive system18
Ovarian Cycle

Luteal Phase

Cells of ruptured follicle grow to form a corpus luteum (yellowish mass of follicular cells)

Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone, inhibiting release of FSH and LH prohibiting the development of new follicles

Female Reproductive System
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Preparation for Pregnancy

Progesterone signals body to prepare for fertilization

If fertilization doesn’t occur, progesterone production stops, ending the ovarian cycle

Menstrual cycle- series of changes preparing the uterus for possible pregnancy each month

Uterus lining thickens before menstrual cycle due to increasing levels of estrogen

If pregnancy doesn’t occur, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, causing uterus lining to be shed

Female Reproductive System
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Preparation for Pregnancy


Uterus lining is shed, blood vessels break resulting in bleeding (blood and tissue leave the body)

Women end menstrual cycles by age 45-55 (menopause- woman no longer ovulates and moves out of child bearing phase

Female Reproductive System
  • Describe the functions of ovarian follicles
  • Compare the regulatory roles of LH and FSH
  • What causes the lining of the uterus to thicken and then to be shed during the menstrual cycle?
  • How could the maturation of an egg cell be halted in the ovary?
reproductive system


Sperm swims to a fallopian tube

Sperm penetrates ovum using enzymes in head to break down ovum layers

Head of sperm enters ovum

Ovum and sperm nuclei fuse to produce a zygote

Reproductive System
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Series of cell divisions within zygote

Occurs as zygote travels through fallopian tube

Blastocyst- hollow ball of cells that reaches uterus

Implantation- blastocyst burrows into uterine wall

Reproductive System
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Gestation- 9 months of pregnancy (3 trimesters)

Embryo- first 8 weeks of pregnancy

Uterus protects and nourishes baby during pregnancy

Reproductive System
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First Trimester

Embryo grows rapidly

Placenta develops (sac that mother nourishes the embryo through)

Mother and baby blood never mix

Nutrients from mother diffuse through placenta or pass through umbilical cord

Fetus- developing human from 8th week until pregnancy

Sex of baby can be determined by end of the first trimester

Reproductive System
reproductive system27


Second and Third Trimesters

Fetus’ organs become functional

Labor- process of leaving the mother’s body due to contractions of the uterus

Fetus leaves body through vagina

Placenta and umbilical cord expelled after the baby is born

Reproductive System
  • Summarize the events in development that occur in the embryo’s first month
  • Describe the function of the placenta
  • Describe fetal alcohol syndrome
  • What are some drugs harmful when they are taken during pregnancy
  • What might happen if more than one egg were released from the ovaries prior to fertilization?
reproductive system29
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Pass from person to person during sexual contact

Caused by both viruses and bacteria

Prevented by abstinence and the use of condoms

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial STDs

Most can be successfully treated

Many may have mild, unnoticeable symptoms

Sterility can result when left untreated

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial STDs


Causes painful urination in discharge of pus from penis and may be symptom free (or discharge from vagina) in females

Can spread through reproductive system causing pain, scarring or sterility

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial STDs


Serious, starts with small chancre ulcer on penis or in vagina

Can cause fever, swollen lymph nodes or rash

If left untreated, can cause destructive lesions on nervous system, blood vessels, bones, skin

Can pass to unborn child

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial STDs


Most common

Painful urination and vaginal discharge

Often goes undetected

Can cause scar tissue buildup in fallopian tubes leading to infertility

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial STDs

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Common cause of infertility

Inflammation of uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or abdominal cavity

Results from untreated STDs

Click here to watch a video

Reproductive System
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Viral STDs

Cannot be cured/treated with antibiotics

AIDS (caused by HIV which destroys wbc’s in immune system)

Genital herpes (caused by herpes simplex virus)

Periodic outbreaks of painful blisters in genitals, and flu-like symptoms

Antiviral drugs can suppress by not cure it

Women with it, have greater risk of cervical cancer

Can pass to unborn children causing nervous system damage or death

Genital warts

Hepatitis B

Reproductive System
  • Name three common STDs caused by bacteria. Why is early detection of these diseases important?
  • Describe how HIV weakens the immune system of an infected individual
  • What is the main difference between the treatment of viral STDs and the treatment of bacterial STDs.
  • List three symptoms of genital herpes
  • How can you best protect yourself from contracting a sexually transmitted disease?