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Subordinating by Present Participles

Subordinating by Present Participles

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Subordinating by Present Participles

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  1. Subordinating by Present Participles Lesson 21 Joseph C. Blumenthal

  2. In this unit we study other useful devices for subordination that will help us to write more mature sentences. When we subordinate a fact or idea, we express it in a word group that is (more, less) than a sentence.

  3. In this unit we study other useful devices for subordination that will help us to write more mature sentences. When we subordinate a fact or idea, we express it in a word group that is (more, less) than a sentence.

  4. Prepositional phrases and adverb, adjective, and noun clauses are subordinate word groups because they (do, do not) make complete sense apart from a sentence.

  5. Prepositional phrases and adverb, adjective, and noun clauses are subordinate word groups because they (do, do not) make complete sense apart from a sentence.

  6. Verbals are also useful devices for subordination. A verbal is a verb that has crossed the boundary line and has become another class of word without completely losing its identity as a verb. A word that functions both as a verb and an adjective would be classified as a _____.

  7. Verbals are also useful devices for subordination. A verbal is a verb that has crossed the boundary line and has become another class of word without completely losing its identity as a verb. A word that functions both as a verb and an adjective would be classified as a verbal.

  8. The three kinds of verbals that we study in this unit are all “double-duty” words that have some of the characteristics of both a verb and another class of words—sometimes a noun, sometimes an adverb or an adjective. Look at the word verbal. As its name suggests, every verbal is formed from a ____.

  9. The three kinds of verbals that we study in this unit are all “double-duty” words that have some of the characteristics of both a verb and another class of words—sometimes a noun, sometimes an adverb or an adjective. Look at the word verbal. As its name suggests, every verbal is formed from a verb.

  10. a cold wind Because the word cold modifies the noun wind, it is an ________.

  11. a cold wind Because the word cold modifies the noun wind, it is an adjective.

  12. a stinging wind Because the word stinging modifies the noun wind, it is also an ________.

  13. a stinging wind Because the word stinging modifies the noun wind, it is also an adjective.

  14. a cold, stinging wind Which adjective was formed from a verb—cold or stinging?

  15. a cold, stinging wind Which adjective was formed from a verb—cold or stinging?

  16. a stinging wind The adjective stinging was formed by adding ___ to the verb sting.

  17. a stinging wind The adjective stinging was formed by adding ing to the verb sting.

  18. An adjective that is formed by adding –ingto a verb is called a present participle. We can turn any verb into a present participle by adding –ingto it (sometimes making a minor change in the spelling). The present participle form of the verb lose is _____.

  19. An adjective that is formed by adding –ingto a verb is called a present participle. We can turn any verb into a present participle by adding –ingto it (sometimes making a minor change in the spelling). The present participle form of the verb lose is losing.

  20. The present participle form of the verb win is _______.

  21. The present participle form of the verb win is winning.

  22. We have a good team. We have a winning team. In which sentence does a present participle modify the noun team? (a, b)

  23. We have a good team. We have a winning team. In which sentence does a present participle modify the noun team? (a, b)

  24. Besides being formed from a verb, a present participle resembles a verb in still another way; It may take a direct object or a subject compliment, as no ordinary adjective can do. I found Roy reading a magazine. (Roy read magazine) The present participle reading is completed by the direct object ________.

  25. Besides being formed from a verb, a present participle resembles a verb in still another way; It may take a direct object or a subject compliment, as no ordinary adjective can do. I found Roy reading a magazine. (Roy read magazine) The present participle reading is completed by the direct object magazine.

  26. I found Roy feeling lonesome. (Roy feel lonesome.) The present participle feeling is completed by the subject compliment ________.

  27. I found Roy feeling lonesome. (Roy feel lonesome.) The present participle feeling is completed by the subject compliment lonesome.

  28. Like the verb from which it is made, a present participle may be modified by an adverb. The lawyer defended her client, believing firmly in his innocence. The present participle believing is modified by the adverb ______.

  29. Like the verb from which it is made, a present participle may be modified by an adverb. The lawyer defended her client, believing firmly in his innocence. The present participle believing is modified by the adverb firmly.

  30. Participles—with their related words—form useful phrases known as participial phrases. These phrases are used as adjectives to modify nouns and pronouns. The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house. The participial phrase modifies the noun ___.

  31. Participles—with their related words—form useful phrases known as participial phrases. These phrases are used as adjectives to modify nouns and pronouns. The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house. The participial phrase modifies the noun dog.

  32. A participial phrase can often be shifted about. Shivering with cold, the dog came into the house. The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house. The dog came into the house, shivering with cold. Can a participial phrase be some distance away from the noun it modifies? (yes, no)

  33. A participial phrase can often be shifted about. Shivering with cold, the dog came into the house. The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house. The dog came into the house, shivering with cold. Can a participial phrase be some distance away from the noun it modifies? (yes, no)

  34. The train roared past, leaving a trail of smoke. The participial phrase is separated by several words from the word it modifies, the noun _____.

  35. The train roared past, leaving a trail of smoke. The participial phrase is separated by several words from the word it modifies, the noun train.

  36. We now have become acquainted with three kinds of word groups that are used like adjectives to modify nouns. ADJECTIVE PHRASE: a girl with a dog ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a girl who was walking her dog PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: a girl walking her dog All three word groups modify the noun ___.

  37. We now have become acquainted with three kinds of word groups that are used like adjectives to modify nouns. ADJECTIVE PHRASE: a girl with a dog ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a girl who was walking her dog PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: a girl walking her dog All three word groups modify the noun girl.

  38. To change a sentence to a participial phrase is simple. (We) heard a loud crash. We rushed to the window. Hearing a loud crash, We rushed to the window. To change the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, drop the subject We and change the verb heard to the present participle _______.

  39. To change a sentence to a participial phrase is simple. (We) heard a loud crash. We rushed to the window. Hearing a loud crash, We rushed to the window. To change the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, drop the subject We and change the verb heard to the present participle hearing.

  40. I picked up the hot pan. (I) thought it was cold. I picked up the hot pan, thinking it was cold. To change the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, drop the subject I and change the verb thought to the present participle ______.

  41. I picked up the hot pan. (I) thought it was cold. I picked up the hot pan, thinking it was cold. To change the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, drop the subject I and change the verb thought to the present participle thinking.

  42. (Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop. Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop. In changing the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, we lost the subject ___.

  43. (Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop. Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop. In changing the italicized sentence to a participial phrase, we lost the subject Bob.

  44. (Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop. Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop. (Bob) To let the reader know the name of the person you’re writing about, you must substitute Bob for the pronoun ___ in the main statement.

  45. (Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop. Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop. (Bob) To let the reader know the name of the person you’re writing about, you must substitute Bob for the pronoun he in the main statement.

  46. If you lose a noun when making a participial phrase, put this noun back at the beginning of your main statement. Aunt Mae lives alone. She is often lonesome for company. What goes in the blank space? Living alone, _________ is often lonesome for company.

  47. If you lose a noun when making a participial phrase, put this noun back at the beginning of your main statement. Aunt Mae lives alone. She is often lonesome for company. What goes in the blank space? Living alone, Aunt Maeis often lonesome for company.

  48. Which two sentences you subordinate depends on which idea you prefer to put in the background if the sentence. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a glass. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass. Which of the two sentences emphasizes the accident that occurred? (a, b)

  49. Which two sentences you subordinate depends on which idea you prefer to put in the background if the sentence. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a glass. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass. Which of the two sentences emphasizes the accident that occurred? (a, b)

  50. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a glass. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass. Which sentence emphasizes the action that led to the accident? (a, b)