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Universal laws and architectures : Theory and lessons from brains, bugs, nets, grids, docs, planes, fire, fashion, art, turbulence, music, buildings, cities , earthquakes, bodies, running, throwing , S y n e s t h e s i a , spacecraft, statistical mechanics. and zombies.

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john doyle jean lou chameau professor control and dynamical systems ee bioe

Universal laws

  • and architectures:
  • Theory and lessonsfrombrains, bugs,nets, grids,
  • docs, planes, fire, fashion,
  • art, turbulence, music, buildings,
  • cities, earthquakes, bodies, running,throwing,
  • Synesthesia, spacecraft, statistical mechanics

and zombies

John Doyle 道陽

Jean-Lou Chameau Professor

Control and Dynamical Systems, EE, & BioE

1

#

Ca

tech

slide2

Fundamentals!

  • Brains
  • Nets
  • Grids (cyberphys)
  • Bugs (microbes, ants)
  • Medical physiology
  • Lots of aerospace
  • Wildfire ecology
  • Earthquakes
  • Physics:
    • turbulence,
    • stat mech (QM?)
  • “Toy”:
    • Lego
    • clothing, fashion
  • Buildings, cities
  • Synesthesia
slide3

Neuroscience

+ People care

+ Live demos

  • Internet (& Cyber-Phys)

+ Understand the details

- Flawed designs

- Everything you’ve read is wrong (in science)*

  • Cell biology (bacteria)

+ Perfection

 Some people care

* this comment is for scientists

slide4

experiments

data

theory

universals

  • Neuroscience

+ People care

+Live demos!

slide5

Prefrontal

Horizontal Meme Transfer

Gene

Motor

Sensory

RNA

RNAp

Learning

Software

Transcription

Striatum

Hardware

mRNA

Amino

Acids

Reflex

Other

Control

Horizontal App Transfer

Ribosomes

DNA

Translation

Digital

New gene

Proteins

Analog

Other

Control

Metabolism

Products

Horizontal Gene Transfer

ATP

Signal transduction

control feedback

slide6

Architecture?

Fragile

Slow

Ideal

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide7

Fragile

Slow

Architecture (constraints that deconstrain)

Architecture

Impossible (law)

Ideal

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide8

Universal laws and architectures (Turing)

Architecture (constraints that deconstrain)

Slow

Architecture

Impossible (law)

Fast

ideal

Inflexible

Flexible

Special

General

slide9

Robust vision with motion

  • Object motion
  • Self motion

Motion

Vision

slide11

Layering

Feedback

Explain this amazing system.

Slow

Vision

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide12

Robust vision with

  • Hand motion
  • Head motion
  • Experiment
  • Motion/vision control without blurring
  • Which is easier and faster?
slide13

Why?

  • Mechanism
  • Tradeoff

Slow

vision

VOR

Fast

slide14

Mechanism

Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

vision

Slow

Tradeoff

VOR

Fast

Flexible

Inflexible

slide15

vision

slow

eye

Act

delay

Slow

vision

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide16

vision

fast

eye

slow

Act

delay

Slow

vision

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide17

fast

eye

Act

Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

Slow

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide18

It works in the dark or with your eyes closed, but you can’t tell.

fast

eye

Act

Slow

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide19

vision

fast

eye

slow

Act

delay

Slow

vision

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide20

vision

Layering

Feedback

slow

Act

Highly

evolved

(hidden)

architecture

eye

delay

Slow

vision

Illusion

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide21

vision

Layering

Partially

Conscious

Act

eye

Automatic

Unconscious

VOR

slide22

vision

Layering

Feedback

fast

slow

Act

eye

delay

VOR

slide23

vision

Architecture

fast

slow

Act

eye

delay

Slow

vision

Illusion

VOR

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

slide24

Universal laws and architectures (Turing)

Architecture (constraints that deconstrain)

Slow

Architecture

Impossible (law)

Fast

ideal

Inflexible

Flexible

Special

General

slide25

Tech implications/extensions

Apps

OS

Slow

OS

Hardware

Digital

Lumped

Distributed

HW

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

Apps

slide26

Layered Architecture

Apps

OS

Hardware

Digital

Lumped

Distributed

Any layer needs all lower layers.

slide27

Layered architectures 101

Apps

OS

Hardware

Digital

Lumped

Distributed

Apps

Operating System

OS

HW

slide28

Layered architectures

Deconstrained

(Applications)

Diverse

Apps

Horizontal App Transfer

OS

OS

HW

Diverse

Deconstrained

(Hardware)

Horizontal HW Transfer

slide29

Layered architectures

Apps

Minimal diversity and change

OS

OS

HW

slide30

Deconstrained

Diverse

diversity and change

Horizontal Transfer

Horizontal Transfer

Diverse

Deconstrained

diversity and change

slide31

Layered architectures

Deconstrained

(Applications)

Diverse

Apps

Horizontal App Transfer

Maximal diversity and change

OS

HW

Diverse

Deconstrained

(Hardware)

Horizontal HW Transfer

slide32

Layered architectures

Deconstrained

(Applications)

Diverse

Apps

Constrained

But hidden

Core Protocols

OS

HW

Diverse

Deconstrained

(Hardware)

slide33

Slow

Apps

OS

HW

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

Special

General

slide34

Slow

Apps

OS

HW

Fast

Inflexible

Flexible

Special

General

slide35

Layered Architecture

Any layer needs all lower layers.

Apps

OS

HW

Digital

Lumped

Distrib.

OS

HW

Digital

Lumped

Distrib.

Digital

Lumped

Distrib.

Lumped

Distrib.

Distrib.

Slow

Cheap

Fast

Costly

Inflexible

Flexible

Special

General

slide36

Decide

Act

Digital

Lumped

Lumped.

Apps

OS

Hardware

Digital

Lumped

Sense

slide37

Fragile

Fragile

Decide

Slow

Slow

Act

Apps

OS

Hardware

Digital

Lumped

Inflexible

Inflexible

Expensive

Sense

efficiency instability layers feedback
Efficiency/instability/layers/feedback

Fragile

  • All create new efficiencies but also instabilities
  • Requires new active/layered/complex/active control

Slow

Inflexible

  • Money/finance/lobbyists/etc
  • Society/agriculture/weapons/etc
  • Bipedalism
  • Maternal care
  • Warm blood
  • Flight
  • Mitochondria
  • Translation (ribosomes)
  • Glycolysis (2011 Science)

Expensive

slide39

Requirements on systems and architectures

dependable

deployable

discoverable

distributable

durable

effective

efficient

evolvable

extensible

fail transparent

fast

fault-tolerant

fidelity

flexible

inspectable

installable

Integrity

interchangeable

interoperable

learnable

maintainable

manageable

mobile

modifiable

modular

nomadic

operable

orthogonality

portable

precision

predictable

producible

provable

recoverable

relevant

reliable

repeatable

reproducible

resilient

responsive

reusable

robust

safety

scalable

seamless

self-sustainable

serviceable

supportable

securable

simplicity

stable

standards compliant

survivable

sustainable

tailorable

testable

timely

traceable

ubiquitous

understandable

upgradable

usable

accessible

accountable

accurate

adaptable

administrable

affordable

auditable

autonomy

available

credible

process capable

compatible

composable

configurable

correctness

customizable

debugable

degradable

determinable

demonstrable

slide40

Sustainable  robust + efficient

dependable

deployable

discoverable

distributable

durable

effective

evolvable

extensible

fail transparent

fast

fault-tolerant

fidelity

flexible

inspectable

installable

Integrity

interchangeable

interoperable

learnable

maintainable

manageable

mobile

modifiable

modular

nomadic

operable

orthogonality

portable

precision

predictable

producible

provable

recoverable

relevant

reliable

repeatable

reproducible

resilient

responsive

reusable

safety

scalable

seamless

self-sustainable

serviceable

supportable

securable

simple

stable

standards

survivable

tailorable

testable

timely

traceable

ubiquitous

understandable

upgradable

usable

accessible

accountable

accurate

adaptable

administrable

affordable

auditable

autonomy

available

compatible

composable

configurable

correctness

customizable

debugable

degradable

determinable

demonstrable

efficient

sustainable

robust

slide41

PCA  Principal Concept Analysis 

dependable

deployable

discoverable

distributable

durable

effective

evolvable

extensible

fail transparent

fast

fault-tolerant

fidelity

flexible

inspectable

installable

Integrity

interchangeable

interoperable

learnable

maintainable

manageable

mobile

modifiable

modular

nomadic

operable

orthogonality

portable

precision

predictable

producible

provable

recoverable

relevant

reliable

repeatable

reproducible

resilient

responsive

reusable

safety

scalable

seamless

self-sustainable

serviceable

supportable

securable

simple

stable

standards

survivable

tailorable

testable

timely

traceable

ubiquitous

understandable

upgradable

usable

accessible

accountable

accurate

adaptable

administrable

affordable

auditable

autonomy

available

compatible

composable

configurable

correctness

customizable

debugable

degradable

determinable

demonstrable

fragile

Simple dichotomous tradeoff pairs

efficient

sustainable

robust

efficient

wasteful

robust

slide42

Layering

Feedback

fragile

Architectures

Laws

robust

efficient

wasteful

slide43

Fragile

Universal laws

Robust

efficient

wasteful

slide44

Fragile

Slow

Universal laws

Fast

Robust

efficient

Flexible

Inflexible

wasteful

slide45

UG biochem, math, control theory

Chandra, Buzi, and Doyle

Most important paper so far.

slide46

Law #1 : Chemistry

Law #2 : Autocatalysis

fragile

Law #3:

1

10

too fragile

complex

No tradeoff

0

10

-1

0

1

10

10

10

expensive

slide47

I recently found this paper, a rare example of exploring an explicit tradeoff between robustness and efficiency.

This seems like an important paper but it is rarely cited.

slide48

1m

Phage

Bacteria

slide50

Phage lifecycle

Survive

Infect

slide51

Phage lifecycle

Survive

Infect

Multiply

slide52

Phage lifecycle

Survive

Lyse

Infect

Multiply

slide53

Phage lifecycle

Survive

Tradeoff?

Multiply

slide54

Ideal for phage, bad for bacteria

fragile

Survive

ideal

robust

Efficient/

fast

Costly/

slow

Grow/

Multiply

slide55

What the data says

thin

small

fragile

Capsid size

Genome size

Survive

thick

big

robust

Multiply

Fast

Efficient

Cheap

Slow

Costly

slide56

Not viable?

thin

small

fragile

Evolution

Good architecture?

Survive

thick

big

Laws?

robust

Impossible?

Multiply

Fast

Efficient

Cheap

Slow

Costly

slide57

thin

small

Capsid size

Genome size

thick

big

Shared architecture

slide58

thin

small

Capsid size

Genome size

Why fragile?

Instability?

thick

big

slide59

Capsid size

Genome size

Why fragile?

Instability?

slide60

Defect

Capsid size

Genome size

Why fragile?

Instability?

slide61

Defect

Capsid size

Genome size

Why fragile?

Instability?

slide62

thin

small

Capsid size

Genome size

thick

big

Passive control

Active control

slide63

What the data says

thin

small

fragile

Capsid size

Genome size

Survive

thick

big

robust

Multiply

Fast

Efficient

Cheap

Slow

Costly

slide64

Universals

  • Laws, constraints, tradeoffs
    • Robust/fragile
    • Efficient/wasteful
    • Fast/slow
    • Flexible/inflexible
  • Architecture
  • Hijacking, parasitism, predation

thin

small

Laws

Evolution

fragile

Phage lifecycle

architectures

Survive

Survive

Infect

Lyse

thick

big

robust

Multiply

cheap

costly

Multiply

slide65

Gene

RNA

RNAp

Transcription

mRNA

Amino

Acids

Other

Control

Phage

Ribosomes

DNA

Translation

New gene

Proteins

Other

Control

Metabolism

Horizontal Gene Transfer

Products

ATP

Bacteria

Signal transduction

control feedback

slide66

Clinical issue: antibiotic resistance?

Gene

RNA

  • Sequence ~100 E Coli (not chosen randomly)
  • ~ 4K genes per cell
  • ~20K different genes in total (pangenome)
  • ~ 1K universally shared genes
  • ~ 300 essential (minimal) genes

RNAp

Transcription

mRNA

Amino

Acids

Other

Control

Ribosomes

DNA

Translation

New gene

Proteins

Other

Control

Metabolism

Products

Horizontal Gene Transfer

ATP

Signal transduction

control feedback

slide67

Horizontal Meme Transfer

Prefrontal

Learning

Gene

Motor

Sensory

RNA

RNAp

Software

Transcription

Striatum

Hardware

mRNA

Amino

Acids

Reflex

Other

Control

Horizontal App Transfer

Ribosomes

DNA

Translation

Digital

New gene

Proteins

Analog

Other

Control

Metabolism

Products

Horizontal Gene Transfer

What can go wrong?

ATP

Signal transduction

control feedback

slide68

Horizontal Bad Meme Transfer

Exploiting layered architecture

Meme

Horizontal Bad App Transfer

Fragility?

Virus

Horizontal Bad Gene Transfer

Parasites & Hijacking

Virus

slide69

Law #1 : Mechanics  Chemistry

Law #2 : Gravity  Autocatalysis

easy

hard

slide70

Law #3 : Light

Why?

vision

delay

hard

harder

Act

slide71

Mechanics+

Gravity +

Light +

Universal laws and architectures:brains, bugs, networks, physiology, grids, medicine, wildfire, turbulence,literature, fashion, dance, earthquakes,art, music, Lego, buildings, cities

vision

Control theory

+ Neuroscience

Balancing an inverted pendulum

delay

Act

slide73

Law #1 : Mechanics

Law #2 : Gravity

Gravity is stabilizing

Gravity is destabilizing

More unstable

easy

hard

harder

slide74

What is sensed matters.

Why?!?

hardest!

hard

harder

Why?

Easy to prove using simple models.

efficiency instability layers feedback1
Efficiency/instability/layers/feedback

Fragile

  • All create new efficiencies but also instabilities
  • Requires new active/layered/complex/active control

Slow

Inflexible

  • Money/finance/lobbyists/etc
  • Society/agriculture/weapons/etc
  • Bipedalism
  • Maternal care
  • Warm blood
  • Flight
  • Mitochondria
  • Translation (ribosomes)
  • Glycolysis (2011 Science)

Expensive

efficiency instability layers feedback2
Efficiency/instability/layers/feedback
  • All create new efficiencies but also instabilities
  • Requires new active/layered/complex/active control
  • Money/finance/lobbyists/etc
  • Society/agriculture/weapons/etc
  • Bipedalism
  • Maternal care
  • Warm blood
  • Flight
  • Mitochondria
  • Translation (ribosomes)
  • Glycolysis (2011 Science)

easy

hard

slide77

Some math details, which can be skipped

Universal laws

Mechanics+

Gravity +

Light +

vision

Balancing an inverted pendulum

delay

+ Neuroscience

Act

slide78

Law #1 : Mechanics

Law #2 : Gravity

Mechanics+Gravity

easy

linearize

slide79

Law #1 : Mechanics

Law #2 : Gravity

easy

hard

linearize

slide80

Law #3 : Light

Why?

vision

delay

hard

harder

Act

Easy to prove using simple models.

slide81

noise

error

vision

eye

slow

delay

Control

Act

slide82

Mechanics+

Gravity +

Light +

Universal laws and architectures:brains, bugs, networks, physiology, grids, medicine, wildfire, turbulence,literature, fashion, dance, earthquakes,art, music, Lego, buildings, cities

vision

Balancing an inverted pendulum

delay

+ Neuroscience

Act

slide83

Law #4 :

8

Fragility

4

2

1

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length l(meters)

slide84

Law #4 :

8

Fragility

4

Fragile

2

1

Shorter

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length l(meters)

slide85

Law #4 :

8

Fragility

4

2

Slower

1

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length l(meters)

slide86

What is sensed matters.

hardest!

hard

harder

Why?

Easy to prove using simple models.

slide87

What is sensed matters.

hardest!

hard

harder

Unstable zeros

Unstable poles

slide89

8

Fragility

4

2

1

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length (meters)

slide90

1.2

easy

3.5

1

3

fragile

(hard)

Sense

(Measure

Length

l0, m)

0.8

2.5

0.6

hard

2

hard

0.4

1.5

robust

(easy)

1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Lengthl to CoM, m

slide91

Sense

(Measure

Length

l0, m)

1.2

easy

3.5

hard!

1

3

0.8

2.5

0.6

2

hard

hard

0.4

1.5

robust

(easy)

1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Lengthl to CoM, m

slide92

Holds for all controllers.

Like Turing, a “law” about intrinsic problem difficulty.

vision

delay

Act

efficiency instability layers feedback3
Efficiency/instability/layers/feedback

Fragile

  • All create new efficiencies but also instabilities
  • Requires new active/layered/complex/active control

Slow

Inflexible

  • Money/finance/lobbyists/etc
  • Society/agriculture/weapons/etc
  • Bipedalism
  • Maternal care
  • Warm blood
  • Flight
  • Mitochondria
  • Translation (ribosomes)
  • Glycolysis (2011 Science)

Expensive

slide94

VOR

vision

8

Fragility

eye

slow

delay

4

Act

1

10

fragile

fast

too fragile

Balancing an inverted pendulum

thin

small

2

Control

Laws

fragile

complex

1

Survive

Act

No tradeoff

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length (meters)

0

thick

big

10

robust

-1

0

1

10

10

10

expensive

cheap

costly

Multiply

slide95

Fragile

Slow

8

Inflexible

Fragility

4

1

10

Expensive

fragile

too fragile

thin

small

2

Laws

fragile

complex

1

Survive

No tradeoff

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length (meters)

0

thick

big

10

robust

-1

0

1

10

10

10

expensive

cheap

costly

Multiply

slide96

vision

Fragile

fast

slow

Slow

Slow

Act

delay

vision

Inflexible

eye

VOR

Fast

Slow

Flexible

Inflexible

Expensive

Impossible (law)

Fast

Flexible

Inflexible

Special

General

slide97

vision

fast

slow

Slow

Act

8

delay

vision

Fragility

eye

Universal laws

VOR

4

Fast

1

Slow

10

fragile

Flexible

too fragile

Inflexible

thin

small

2

Laws

fragile

Impossible (law)

complex

1

Fast

Survive

No tradeoff

.05

.1

1

.2

.5

Length (meters)

0

thick

big

10

robust

-1

0

1

10

10

10

Flexible

Inflexible

expensive

cheap

costly

Multiply

what some reviewers say
What (some) reviewers say
  • “…to establish universality … is simply wrong. It cannot be done…
  • … a mathematical scheme without any real connections to biological or medical…
  • …universality is well justified in physics… for biological and physiological systems …a dream …never be realized, due to the vast diversity in such systems.
  • …does not seem to understand or appreciate the vast diversity of biological and physiological systems…
  • …a high degree of abstraction, which …make[s]the model useless …
slide99

Compute

Comms

Gödel

Shannon

Turing

Von Neumann

Theory?

Deep, but fragmented, incoherent, incomplete

Nash

Carnot

Boltzmann

Bode

Heisenberg

Physics

Control, OR

Einstein

slide100

Compute

  • Worst-case (“risk”)
  • Time complexity (delay)

Turing

Delay and risk are most important

  • Computation for control
  • Off-line design
  • On-line implementation
  • Learning and adaptation

Bode

  • Worst-case (“risk”)
  • Delay severely degrades robust performance

Control, OR

slide101

Compute

Communicate

Turing

Shannon

Delay and risk are most important

Delay and risk are least important

Carnot

Bode

Boltzmann

Control, OR

Heisenberg

Physics

Einstein

slide102

Communicate

  • Space complexity

Shannon

Dominates “high impact

science” literature

  • Average case (risk neutral)
  • Random ensembles
  • Asymptotic (infinite delay)
  • “Layering” by averaging

Carnot

Boltzmann

Heisenberg

Physics

Einstein

slide103

Compute

Communicate

Turing

Shannon

Delay and risk are most important

Delay and risk are least important

New progress!

Bode

Control, OR

Physics

slide104

Physics of Fluids (2011)

low speed

streak

y

y

Flow

x

z

z

x

Coherent structures and turbulent drag

high-speed

region

3D coupling

upflow

Blunted turbulent velocity profile

downflow

Turbulent

Laminar

slide105

Turbulent

Laminar

fragile

Laminar

Fundamentals!

Control?

Turbulent

?

robust

efficient

wasteful