indeks kelestarian lingkungan environmental sustainability index n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 161 Views
  • Uploaded on

Diabstraksikan oleh : soemarno , psdl ppsub , desember 2012. INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index. KUANTITAS AIR. Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL . DOMESTIC WATER QUANTITY, SERVICE LEVEL AND HEALTH.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index' - palila


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
indeks kelestarian lingkungan environmental sustainability index

Diabstraksikanoleh:

soemarno, psdlppsub, desember 2012

INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN =Environmental Sustainability Index

KUANTITAS AIR

BahanKajianpada MK. PSDAL

slide2

DOMESTIC WATER QUANTITY, SERVICE LEVEL AND HEALTH

The quantity of water delivered and used for households is an important aspect of domestic water supplies, which influences hygiene and therefore public health.

Summary of requirement for water service level to promote health

Diunduhdari: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/wsh0302/en/ ……………… 4/12/2012

slide3

WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION

The quantity of water required for municipal uses for which the water supply scheme has to be designed requires following data:

Water consumption rate (Per Capita Demand in litres per day per head)

Population to be served.

Quantity= Per capita demand x Population

Water Consumption Rate

It is very difficult to precisely assess the quantity of water demanded by the public, since there are many variable factors affecting water consumption. The various types of water demands, which a city may have, may be broken into following classes:

Water Consumption for Various Purposes:

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm ……………… 4/12/2012

slide4

WATER CONSUMPTION FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide5

FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND

The per capita fire demand is very less on an average basis but the rate at which the water is required is very large.

The rate of fire demand is sometimes traeted as a function of population and is worked out from following empirical formulae:

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide6

FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND:

Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cities is generally large as compared to that for smaller towns as big cities have sewered houses.

Adanyaindustri-industri.

Kondisiiklim.

Perilakukebiasaanorangdan status ekonominya.

Kualitas air: If water is aesthetically $ medically safe, the consumption will increase as people will not resort to private wells, etc.

Pressure in the distribution system.

Efficiency of water works administration: Leaks in water mains and services; and unauthorised use of water can be kept to a minimum by surveys.

Biaya air.

Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two different ways: on the basis of meter reading and on the basis of certain fixed monthly rate.

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide7

FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND

Average Daily Per Capita Demand

              = Quantity Required in 12 Months/ (365 x Population)

If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet the fluctuations.

Seasonal variation: The demand peaks during summer. Firebreak outs are generally more in summer, increasing demand. So, there is seasonal variation .

Daily variation depends on the activity. People draw out more water on Sundays and Festival days, thus increasing demand on these days.

Hourly variations are very important as they have a wide range. During active household working hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight in the evening, the bulk of the daily requirement is taken. During other hours the requirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quantity of water is required to be supplied during short duration, necessitating the need for a maximum rate of hourly supply.

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide8

FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND

The adequate quantity of water must be available to meet the peak demand. To meet all the fluctuations, the supply pipes, service reservoirs and distribution pipes must be properly proportioned.

The water is supplied by pumping directly and the pumps and distribution system must be designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of monthly variation influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the design of pumps and service reservoirs.

As the population decreases, the fluctuation rate increases.

Maximum daily demand = 1.8 x average daily demand

Maximum hourly demand of maximum day i.e. Peak demand               = 1.5 x average hourly demand                = 1.5 x Maximum daily demand/24               = 1.5 x (1.8 x average daily demand)/24                = 2.7 x average daily demand/24               = 2.7 x annual average hourly demand

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide9

DESIGN PERIODS & POPULATION FORECAST

This quantity should be worked out with due provision for the estimated requirements of the future . The future period for which a provision is made in the water supply scheme is known as the design period.

Design period is estimated based on the following:

Useful life of the component, considering obsolescence, wear, tear, etc.

Expandability aspect.

Anticipated rate of growth of population, including industrial, commercial developments & migration-immigration.

Available resources.

Performance of the system during initial period.

Diunduhdari: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm……………… 4/12/2012

slide10

WATER QUANTITY STRESS

The word stress is used to talk about problems with water quantity, or the ability of a drinking water system to supply enough water.

It is important to understand when, where and how water is leaving a drinking water source and compare it to how quickly that source can be naturally replenished. It is also important to look at water takings and water supply trends.

What results from looking at all of these factors is a water budget, which is useful in predicting water supply shortages and planning for those shortages. Water quantity stresses can lead to water quality issues as too little water in a source can mean contaminants are more concentrated and therefore, may be above acceptable levels.

Water quantity stressors include :

water that is taken by municipalities for drinking water;

water that is taken by industry for manufacturing processing;

water that is taken by business for activities such as food and beverage processing;

water that is taken by agricultural for irrigation;

private well use.

Diunduhdari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

slide11

POTENTIAL WATER QUANTITY ISSUES

Taking too much water from a source of water, such as a surface water body or aquifer, can mean that the water source is stressed.

This may develop into to a water quantity issue should more water be taken from a source than can be naturally replenished.

Some of the common reasons for taking water include:

Municipal water takings for domestic, industrial, commercial and institutional use

Agricultural water takings

Private wells taking water for domestic use

Industrial takings such as for aggregate extraction, mining, forestry, food processing,

bottled water and greenhouse operations

Recreational takings such as for golf courses and bait harvesters in some areas.

Diunduhdari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

slide12

THE THINGS TO PROTECT WATER:

Conserve water. Not only is conserving water helpful to maintaining a constant supply of drinking water, too little water in a source can mean contaminants are more concentrated and, therefore, may be above acceptable levels.

Be an avid recycler. Recycling paper products, glass, metals and plastics cuts down on pollution and also reduces the amount of water we use. Manufacturing recycled paper uses 58% less water than making paper from virgin wood pulp. Making glass from recycled materials cuts related air pollution 20% and water pollution 50%.

Dispose of hazardous waste properly. Take unused paints, cleaners, pesticides, and medical prescriptions to your local hazardous waste facility. Take used engine oil to recycling facilities. Use drop cloths or tarps when working with hazardous materials such as paints, driveway sealers or wood stain to prevent spills from leaking into the ground. If a spill occurs, clean it up with an absorbent material such as kitty litter or sawdust and scoop the contaminant into a container.

Use non-toxic products for cleaning and environmentally-friendly soaps, shampoos and personal care products. Remember that what you use in your house goes back down your drain.

Clean up pet waste which contains nutrients and pathogens that can run into storm sewers during a rain storm.

Prevent pollutants from entering into runoff by reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides, fertilizers, sidewalk salts and by not over-watering your lawn. If you run an agricultural operation and haven’t already, consider developing and implementing a Nutrient Management Plan.

Take care when refueling gas tanks for cars, lawn mowers, chainsaws, weed trimmers, tractors or other machinery to avoid spilling fuel on the ground. Also take care when changing engine oil. One litre of gas or oil can contaminate a million litres of groundwater.

Take your car to commercial car washes designed to prevent pollutant runoff from entering storm sewers. Use commercial car washes that use water efficient sprays, reducing their water consumption

Diunduhdari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

slide13

SOME WAYS TO PROTECT WATER FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON RURAL PROPERTIES INCLUDE:

Keep your septic system in proper working order and empty the tank regularly.

Protect and maintain your private well. Wells provide pathways for contaminants to enter the groundwater. If you have a well, be sure it is sealed properly and if you own a well you no longer use, have it properly decommissioned by a licensed well technician. Test your well water regularly to ensure the water is safe to drink.

Manage animal waste on farms to prevent water contamination.

Manage livestock grazing. Overgrazing exposes soil and increases erosion.

Protect the vegetation along the banks of ponds, streams and lakes to help control erosion, provide food for aquatic life, and maintain cooler water temperatures necessary for some species of fish.

Diunduhdari: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

slide14

WATER QUANTITY EVALUATION

Water quantity is evaluated differently for rivers and streams, lakes and groundwater.

Rivers and streams. Streamflow hydrographs record data from gauges installed in waterways, indicating how much water flows past a fixed point, over time.

Lakes. Lake bathymetry uses sonar devices to measure variations in water depth, then links this measurement to the lake's surface area and volume change with depth. This allows for estimates of water gained and lost as the lake's level goes up or down. Bathymetric surveys are commercially available for many Alberta lakes.

Groundwater . Difficult to quantify because of geological variables, but can be achieved using computer flow modeling. A pump test can demonstrate the sustainable productivity of a single, groundwater well. However the groundwater resource of an entire area is at best an approximation.

Precipitation . Alberta Environment and its stakeholders have a network of precipitation gauges throughout the province, providing a good measure of distribution and quantity of the province's rainfall. This is critical in evaluating potential water availability. Alberta also collects real time precipitation from many stations and regularly produces summary maps of the province-wide distribution of precipitation.

Diunduhdari: http://environment.alberta.ca/01555.html ……………… 4/12/2012

freshwater resources

Freshwater Resources

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide16

Air

  • Importance of water for human, animals, plants:
  • Humans, and other organisms, are mostly water.
    • Water
      • ~ 60% body weight in male
      • ~ 55% body weight in female.
    • Intracellular water
      • cytoplasm = water, proteins, salts
    • Intercellular fluid
      • Blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide17

SifatFisika & Kimia Air

  • Hydrogen bonding,
    • forces of attraction between molecules account for other properties

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide18

SifatFisika & Kimia Air

  • Liquid over wide temperature range
    • which happens to correspond to temps on Earth
  • High specific heat, changes temperature slowly
    • Holds & carries much heat energy in large water bodies
    • High heat of vaporization,
    • Heat recovered when water condenses, heat of condensation
  • Solvent
    • Dissolves wide variety of substances
  • Expands when freezes (ice floats!)

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide19

Distribusi Air Tawar

  • Surface water
    • lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands
    • Watershed, drainage basin

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide20

Distribusi Air Tawar

  • Groundwater
    • Water that has infiltrated through soil into deeper, porous sediments & rock in sand, sandstone, volcanic ash layers
    • usually below “water table”
    • Recharge area

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide21

Penggunaan Air Tawar

  • Agriculture:
    • worldwide 70% of surface water used on 17% of cropland.
    • 60-80% evaporates or seeps below roots, wasted

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide22

Penggunaan Air Tawar

  • Industry: ~ 20%
    • Solvent, Cleaner, Coolant
    • Essential part of product

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide23

Penggunaan Air Tawar

  • Domestic/Residential & civic use: ~ 10%
    • Drinking and food preparation
    • Fountains, pools, lawns, parks, golf courses
    • Flushing sewage

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide24

Sumberdaya Air Tawar

  • In USA
    • Distribution of population
    • Distribution of freshwater

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide25

Kelangkaan Air Tawar

  • Causes:
    • Dry climate
    • Drought
      • time period of rainfall deficit and/or high evaporation
    • Desiccation
      • loss of soil moisture because of deforestation, overgrazing, etc. May cause higher evaporation & failure of recharge.
    • Water stress
      • low per capita availability. Too many people/ water

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide26

Kelangkaan Air Tawar

  • Causes:
    • Dry climate
    • Drought
    • Desiccation
    • Water stress

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide27

Kelangkaan Air Tawar

  • Depletion of surface water
    • Colorado River

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide28

Kelangkaan Air Tawar

  • Depletion of surface water
    • Colorado River

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide29

Kelangkaan Air Tawar

  • Depletion of ground water
    • Ogallala Aquifer
      • World’s largest

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide30

Peningkatan suplai air

  • Build dams, reservoirs
  • Bring water from elsewhere
    • pipes, aqueducts
  • Withdraw groundwater
  • Desalination
  • Improve efficiency (stop waste)

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide31

Peningkatan suplai air

  • Build dams, reservoirs (Buford Dam, Lake Lanier)
    • Benefits
      • Hydroelectric power
      • Irrigation
      • Control flooding
      • Source of water for cities, industry etc.
      • Recreation

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

slide32

Peningkatan suplai air

  • Build dams, reservoirs
    • Drawbacks
      • reduce downstream flow,
        • habitat loss in river & estuary
        • Deprives people downstream of “their” water: AL, FL, GA
      • flood valleys upstream,
        • farmland, forests, people displaced
      • weight of dam + reservoir alters geology,
        •  earthquakes
      • siltation fills reservoir
      • dam failure  catastrophic flood
        • Johnstown Flood, PA. 31 May 1889

Freshwater.ppt

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

peningkatan suplai air
Peningkatansuplai air
  • Bring water from elsewhere
    • Benefits
      • irrigation
      • source for cities, industry
    • Drawbacks
      • Costs of pipelines, pumps, etc.
      • Habitat loss
      • Depletion of another resource
        • Mono Lake, CA
        • Aral Sea

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

peningkatan suplai air1
Peningkatansuplai air
  • Withdraw groundwater
  • Desalination
  • Improve efficiency (stop waste)

Diunduhdari: facstaff.gpc.edu/~apennima/ENVS/Freshwater.ppt‎

freshwater resources united nations environment programme

FRESHWATER RESOURCESUnited Nations Environment Programme

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

agenda 21 s freshwater management guidelines
Agenda 21's freshwater management guidelines
  • Integrated water resources development and management;
  • Water resources assessment;
  • Protection of water resources, water quality and aquatic ecosystems;
  • Drinking-water supply and sanitation;
  • Water and sustainable urban development;
  • Water for sustainable food production and rural development; and
  • The impact of climate change on water resources.

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

slide37

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

estimasi sumberdaya air global
EstimasiSumberdaya Air Global
  • The total volume of water on Earth is ~1.4 billion km3.
  • freshwater resources is ~35 million km3, or about 2.5% of the total volume.
  • The total usable freshwater supply for ecosystems and humans is ~200 000 km3 of water, which is < 1% of all freshwater resources, and only 0.01% of all the water on Earth
  • (Gleick, 1993; Shiklomanov, 1999).

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

global freshwater resources quantity and distribution by region
Global Freshwater Resources: Quantity and Distribution by Region
  • Of these freshwater resources, ~24 million km3
  • 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in mountainous regions, the Antarctic and Arctic regions.

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

slide40

Global Freshwater Resources: Quantity and Distribution by Region

  • Some 8 million km3 or 30.8% is stored underground in the form of groundwater (shallow and deep groundwater basins up to 2 000 metres, soil moisture, swamp water and permafrost).
  • This constitutes about 97% of all the freshwater that is potentially available for human use.

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

das utama di dunia
DAS utamadidunia

Rivers - an estimated 263 international river basins covering 45.3% of the land surface area of the earth, excluding Antarctica.

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

slide42

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

slide43
IIt is estimated that the freshwater available for human consumption varies between 12 500 km3 and 14 000 km3 each year

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

biological oxygen demand 1976 2000
Biological Oxygen Demand 1976-2000

Biological oxygen demand is an indicator of the organic pollution of freshwater

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎

slide45

Diunduhdari: api.ning.com/files/..._/FRESHWATERRESOURCES.ppt‎