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SMOKING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SMOKING. One of the leading causes of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the world. Tobacco is the 2 nd major cause of deaths in the world. In Pakistan smoking is the single preventable cause of death.

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One of the leading causes of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the world.

Tobacco is the 2nd major cause of deaths in the world.

In Pakistan smoking is the single preventable cause of death.

Stress in our life's, nicotine addiction, peer pressure, or just lying to cool and going with the trend are some of the major reasons why smokers find it so hard to quite.

Unfortunately, many smokers don’t really take the time out to carefully think about the harmful effects of smoking.

In the world one billion people smoke and 5.4million people die each year.
  • 25-30million Pakistani smoke and 1200 young people start smoking each day.
  • 40% men & 8% women in Pakistan are regular smokers.
  • 100, 000 Pakistani die each year from tobacco related illness. Tobacco kills 274 Pakistani each day.
24% male and 16% female college students were regular smokers in Karachi (reported by AKU research)
  • Prevalence of smoking in the youth of Islamabad is 28%.
  • If one continues to smoke, he is bound to lose 3 months/year of his life after the age of 40 every year.
Smoking means in halation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco
  • Cigarettes – the most popular method of smoking, consists of finally shredded tobacco rolled in light weight paper.
  • Cigarette smoking is dangerous & injurious to health.
  • Smoking is major risk factor for many diseases like lung cancer, Bronchogenic ca., ch. Bronchitis, IHD etc.
  • Smokers have 3 fold risk of IHD other than non-smokers.
Smoking has synergistic action with other risk factors such as hypertension and elevated serum cholesterol.
  • Responsible for 25% of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths under 65 years of age in men.
  • In developed countries 60 million deaths due to smoking in the last 50 years.
  • 5 million die each year due to smoking.
  • About 46 million people in USA smoke an estimated 420 billion cigarettes each year.
About 442000 in USA die each year from illness caused by cigarettes smoking.
  • 3 millions pre-mature deaths per year due to smoker mothers.
  • Infants of smoker parents are prone to have repeated episodes of Pneumonia, Asthma & other respirator problems.
effects of environmental tobacco smoke ets
Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
  • Exposure to ETS increases “Risk of Lung Ca.” among the non-smokers.

Harmful components of smoking:

  • Smoking form the average cigarette contains about 4000 chemicals, some of which are highly toxic and 43 of which cause cancers.
  • Tar
  • Nicotine – Poisonous & highly addictive.
  • Co – induces Atherogenesis
  • Hydrocarbons – from paper burning.
  • Fall in HDL.
mode of action
Mode of Action

Tobacco smoke destroys an important brain enzyme MAOB which is vital for breaking down excess amount of DOPAMINE – a neurotransmitter that triggers pleasure – seeking behavior.

Smokers have decreased level of MAOB and abnormally high levels of DOPAMINE.

Factors Associated with Smoking:

  • Peer pressure
  • Following the examples of sublings & parents
  • Employment outside the home.
smoking related diseases
Smoking related Diseases

1. Respiratory System Diseases:

Lung Ca. Emphysema

Bronchogenic Ca. Asthma

Ch. Bronchitis

2. CVS Diseases

  • IHD chance increases two times –---- develops MI
  • Hypertension
  • Aortic aneurysm

3. GIT Diseases:

  • Peptic Ulcer
  • Ca. Oral cavity & Oesophagus.
  • Liver Cirrhosis.

4. CNS Diseases:

  • Cerebro-vascular disease
  • Stroke (50 %) – male 40 % and female 60% at risk
  • Temporary Ischemia
5. Renal Diseases:
  • Nephritis
  • Ca. Kidney & Urinary bladder

6. Smoking and Breast Ca.

Smoking increases the chance of developing Breast Ca.

in some women.

7. Smoking & Pregnancy:

  • Retarded foetal growth
  • LBW babies ( 200g less than normal at birth)
  • Increased chance of congenital anomalies
  • Still birth and abortions
  • High pre-natal mortality rate
withdrawal symptoms may continue for 4 6 weeks
Anger & mood swings




Anxiety/ Restlessness

Craving (may continue for many months )





Increase in appetite

Night time awakenings

Feeling tired all the time


Lack of concentration

Withdrawal Symptomsmay continue for 4-6 weeks
control measures
Control Measures
  • Change in Attitude and behavior
  • Health education
  • Comprehensive services to treat tobacco dependents
  • Legislation
  • Ban on cigarette advertisements
  • Increasing taxes on Tobacco products
  • Registration of smoking on public places
  • Establishing “STOP SMOKING” clinics at all the major hospital in Pakistan
  • To assist those wishing to stop smoking.
  • Anti-smoking activities by Govt. & NGOs.
  • Research