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PS 111, Professional Studies

PS 111, Professional Studies

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PS 111, Professional Studies

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  1. PS 111, Professional Studies The Maritime Industry

  2. The Maritime Industry IS … • the prototypical international business, • the hub of an inter-modal, global transportation network, • a highly technological enterprise, • the application of atmospheric and ocean sciences, • national defense and security

  3. The Maritime Industry IS …International Business • Defined in terms of moving goods across borders -- it is inherently global • Over 95% of all U.S. import & export tonnage is moved by ship • Requires contracting, financing & marketing in an international environment, and a knowledge of … • Economics & Labor Relations • International & Admiralty Law • International Relations & Trade Policy

  4. The Maritime Industry IS …Inter-modal Transportation • Coordination with air, rail, & truck transportation essential • Short-term warehousing & “just-in-time” inventory functions require knowledge of … • Management & Logistics • Marketing & Labor Relations • Port Security integral to Terminal Operations

  5. The Maritime Industry IS …Engineering & Technology • Energy conversion systems for propulsion • Power plant instrumentation, automation & control • Ship design, construction & repair • Voice, data & navigation communications systems • Pollution monitoring, abatement & recovery technology • Off-shore platform design & construction

  6. The Maritime Industry IS …Atmospheric & Ocean Science • Weather forecasting & vessel routing • Ocean resources – biological & mineral • Renewable energy sources • Fundamental Research in a variety of areas • Climatology • Marine Biology • Geology • Ecology

  7. The Maritime Industry IS …National Defense & Security • Sea-lift capacity • Underway replenishment (UNREP) • Pre-positioned logistical support • Maritime surveillance • Naval Engineering • Combatant vessel design • Sea-based weapons systems • Port security • Transportation Workers Security Credentials (TWIC) • Vessel & cargo inspection

  8. Weather forcasting & routing Cargo handling technologies Military supply lines Communications: Voice, Data & Navigation Poodle training Maritime Industry SHIPPING Trade policy & international relations Logistics & terminal operations Automation & control systems Energy conversion & power plant operation Pollution monitoring & abatement Import-export practice The Maritime Industry IS …

  9. A little Maritime Industry historyEarly 19th century (1800-1860) • Congress grants reduced tariffs for goods imported on U.S. ships (1795) • Interstate commerce predominately by water • “Cabotage” legislation (1817) restricts domestic shipping to U.S. vessels • Erie Canal makes NYC port of entry for interior America • By 1840’s, U.S. challenging England for domination of world maritime trade

  10. A little Maritime Industry historyLate 19th century (1860-1900) • Civil War decimates U.S. commercial shipping • By 1870’s, less than 30% of imports in U.S. ships • NYS legislature authorizes NYC to establish a “Nautical School” (1873) & Congress supplies US Navy vessel, St. Marys (1874) • Transcontinental railroad competes with “round the Horn” Clipper Ships in inter-coastal trade • Iron- (later, steel-) hulled, steam vessels begin to replace wooden sailing ships • Spanish-American War renews pride in American seamanship & regenerates U.S. maritime industry

  11. A little Maritime Industry historyEarly 20th century (1900-1945) • Great White Fleet – US Battle Fleet circumnavigates the globe issuing in “The American Century” • Panama Canal – Intercoastal shipping competes with railroads, East coast/Far East & ‘round-the-worldtrade increases • World War I – 122 Hog Islanders built, become the backbone of inter-war merchant fleet • Jones Act – U.S. Cabotage Laws reaffirmed • World War II • Enormous sea-lift capacity constructed (Liberties, Victories, T-2 tankers) • U.S. Navy supremacy established

  12. A little Maritime Industry historyLate 20th century (post WW II) • Liberties, Victories, & T2’s surplused world-wide as backbone of post-war merchant fleets … • eventually replaced by much larger, faster vessels • Pipelines & interstate highway system compete in domestic trade, while … • airlines dominate international passenger trade • Energy costs dictate ship design • Slow speed, heavy fuel burning diesel propulsion dominates commercial shipping • Nuclear & Gas Turbine propulsion become military standard • Off-shore industries emerge

  13. A little Maritime Industry historyLate 20th century … • Development of containerization & inter-modal concepts • International trade expands (in tonnage) with fewer, ultra large carriers • International regulation in operations, business practice, & environmental protection • Globalization in ownership • European & Pacific Rim ship construction & repair • “Flags of Convenience” • Impact of advanced communication technologies