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Data Mining

Data Mining

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Data Mining

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  1. Data Mining Lecture 2

  2. Course Syllabus • Course topics: • Introduction (Week1-Week2) • What is Data Mining? • Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals • The Essentials of Learning • The Emerging Needs for Different Data Analysis Perspectives • Data Management and Data Collection Techniques for Data Mining Applications(Week3-Week4) • Data Warehouses: Gathering Raw Data from Relational Databases and transforming into Information. • Information Extraction and Data Processing Techniques • Data Marts: The need for building highly specialized data storages for data mining applications

  3. Week 2- Data vs. Knowledge Data (Operation) • Data: • raw • atomic • (mostly!) operational • Information: • processed • re-organized • grouped • Knowledge • patterns,models, findings ‘behind’ Information • Wisdom • perfect orchestration of Knowledge Information (Analytic) Data Knowledge Wisdom “Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?” T. S. Eliot

  4. Week 2- Evolution of Database and Information Systems • 1960s: (focus on efficient data collection) • Data collection, database creation, IMS and network DBMS • 1970s: (focus on structured data collection) • Relational data model, relational DBMS implementation • 1980s: (focus on information extraction) • RDBMS, advanced data models (extended- relational, OO, deductive, etc.) • and application-oriented DBMS (spatial, scientific, engineering, etc.) • 1990s – 2000s: (focus on knowledge extractionand modeling) • Data Mining, Data Warehousing, Multi Dimensional Databases

  5. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is Data Warehouse “A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process” William H. Inmon Subject-oriented: A data warehouse is organized around major subjects, such as customer,supplier, product, and sales.Rather than concentrating on the day-to-day operations and transaction processing of an organization, a data warehouse focuses on the modeling and analysis of data for decision makers

  6. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is Data Warehouse “A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process” William H. Inmon Integrated: A data warehouse is usually constructed by integrating multiple Heterogeneous sources, such as relational databases, flat files, and on-line transaction records. Data cleaning and data integration techniques are applied to ensure consistency in naming conventions, encoding structures, attribute measures, and so on.

  7. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is Data Warehouse “A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process” William H. Inmon Time-variant: Data are stored to provide information from a historical perspective (e.g., the past 5–10 years). Every key structure in the data warehouse contains, either implicitly or explicitly, an element of time. Nonvolatile: A data warehouse is always a physically separate store of data transformed from the application data found in the operational environment. Due to this separation, a data warehouse does not require transaction processing, recovery, and concurrency control mechanisms. It usually requires only two operations in data accessing: initial loading of data and access of data.

  8. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is Data Warehouse • data cleaning • data integration • data consolidation

  9. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP • object oriented methodology comes in • entities (cubes) • attributes (dimensions)

  10. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP taken from the Text Book

  11. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP • Multi Dimensional Database Modeling • star schema • snowflake schema • fact constellation schema • fact vs dimension

  12. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP taken from the Text Book

  13. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP taken from the Text Book

  14. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is OLAP taken from the Text Book

  15. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – OLAP Operations • roll-up • drill-down • slice • dice • pivot (rotation) taken from the Text Book

  16. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – OLAP Operations

  17. Week 2- Data Collection and Data Management Fundamentals – What is Data Mart ? data warehouse information about subjects that span the entire organization, its scope is enterprise-wide. which modeling schema ? the fact constellation schema is commonly used, since it can model multiple, interrelated subjects. data mart a department subset of the data warehouse that focuses on selected subjects, its scope is departmentwide. which modeling schema ? the star or snowflake schema are commonly used, since both are geared toward modeling single subjects

  18. Week2-OLAP vs Data Mining • On-Line Analytical Processing • provides the ability to pose statistical and summary queries interactively (traditional On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP) databases may take minutes or even hours to answer these queries) • Advantages relative to data mining • Can obtain a wider variety of results • Generally faster to obtain results • Disadvantages relative to data mining • User must “ask the right question” • Generally used to determine high-level statistical summaries, rather than specific relationships among instances

  19. Week2-Reporting vs Data Mining • Reporting • Last months sales for each service type • Sales per service grouped by customer sex or age bracket • List of customers who lapsed their policy • Data Mining • What characteristics do customers that lapse their policy have in common and how do they differ from customers who renew their policy? • Which motor insurance policy holders would be potential customers for my House Content Insurance policy?

  20. Week2- Data to Knowledge Pyramid Increasing potential to support business decisions End User Making Decisions Business Analyst Data Presentation Visualization Techniques Data Mining Data Analyst Information Discovery Data Exploration Statistical Analysis, Querying and Reporting Data Warehouses / Data Marts OLAP, MDA DBA Data Sources Paper, Files, Information Providers, Database Systems, OLTP

  21. Interpretation/ Evaluation Data Mining Preprocessing Patterns Selection Preprocessed Data Data Target Data Week 2- Data Mining Perspective to Knowledge Discovery Knowledge adapted from: U. Fayyad, et al. (1995), “From Knowledge Discovery to Data Mining: An Overview,” Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, U. Fayyad et al. (Eds.), AAAI/MIT Press

  22. Week2- Data Mining Process Flow Visualization and Human Computer Interaction Plan for Learning Generate and Test Hypotheses Discover Knowledge Determine Knowledge Relevancy Evolve Knowledge/ Data Goals for Learning Knowledge Base Database(s) Background Knowledge Discovery Algorithms “In order to discoveranything, you mustbelooking forsomething” Laws of Serendipity

  23. Week2-Simplified view of Data Mining Process Flow Graphical user interface Pattern evaluation Data mining engine Knowledge-base Database or data warehouse server Filtering Data cleaning & data integration Data Warehouse Databases

  24. Mining query Mining result Layer4 User Interface User GUI API OLAM Engine OLAP Engine Layer3 OLAP/OLAM Data Cube API Layer2 MDDB MDDB Meta Data Database API Filtering&Integration Filtering Layer1 Data Repository Data cleaning Data Warehouse Databases Data integration Week 2- Extended Perspective on Data Mining Process Flow

  25. Week 2- Essentials of Learning • Learning ? • can we formalize it? • is it just a chemical activation? • is it memorization? • is it continous node connecting/disconnecting on dynamically changing brain network topology?

  26. Week 2- Essentials of Learning • The Artifical Intelligence View: • central to human knowledge and intelligence, essential for building intelligent machines. • years of effort in AI has shown that trying to build intelligent computers by programming all the rules cannot be done; automatic learning is crucial. For example, we humans are not born with the ability to understand language — we learn it — and it makes sense to try to have computers learn language instead of trying to program it all it

  27. Week 2- Essentials of Learning • The Software Engineering View: • Machine Learning allows us to program computers by example, which can be easier than writing code the traditional way. • The Stats View: • Machine Learning is the marriage of computer science and statistics • computational techniques are applied to statistical problems. Machine Learning has been applied to a vast number of problems in many contexts, beyond the typical statistics problems. Machine Learning is often designed with different considerations than statistics (e.g., speed is often more important than accuracy).

  28. Week 2-End • Please check the web site for Learning Theory and its Esssentials: http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm • read • Course Text Book Chapter 3