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UTILIZATION OF UAV’s FOR GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH A Summary and Synthesis of Workshop 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview Page 2 Draft Vision Statement Page 3 Missions: Overview Page 4 Missions: Climate Page 5 Missions: Land & Ocean Surface Page 7
A Summary and Synthesis of Workshop 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Overview Page 2
Draft Vision Statement Page 3
Missions: Overview Page 4
Missions: Climate Page 5
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface Page 7
Missions: Global Observations Page 10
Missions: Atmospheric Observations Page 13
Technology: Overview Page 16
Technology: Platforms Page 17
Technology: Instrumentation Page 22
Technology: Operations Page 27
Technology: Data and Communications Page 29
Gaps, Roadmaps & Vision: Overview Page 31
Gaps & Roadmaps Page 32
Ideas for Joint NASA/NOAA/DOE Programs Page 35
Ideas for Innovative UAV Uses Page 36
UAV-Enabled Global Observation System Page 37
Ideas for Next Steps Page 38
What we have in common forms the basis of our collaboration - the focus on the goals developed in our first workshop in San Diego. From there, there is no limit to what we can do.
On December 7th and 8th, 2004, DOC/NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL), NASA Science and Aeronautics Research Mission Directorates, and DOE Office of Science sponsored the second in a series of workshops on the Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Global Climate Change Research. Participants from NASA, NOAA, and the Department of Energy gathered together with researchers, scientists, engineers and industry representatives to build upon the work completed in the first workshop.
This session began with a series of presentations about the program objectives of the three agencies, about the requirements for a research program, and about the current capabilities of UAVs. The group then became familiar with the 11 science goals developed in the first workshop. Participants expanded upon these missions, clarifying the observations needed for each as well as when and where these observations would need to take place.
The group then looked at the technology and operations as well as the gaps and roadmaps needed to realize these goals. Finally we used a current NASA RFI document to drive some of the groups to put an outline together for a few of the goals while other groups looked at the next steps in the collaboration to move the group to realizing the objective of a global climate change observation system.
This document is a summary of the group’s work.
“UAV’s bridge the gap between Earth and space to understand and protect our planet.”
In the first round of work, groups reviewed the focus areas identified in the first workshop: Climate, Land & Ocean Surface, Global Observations, and Atmospheric Observations. Out of these groups, small teams then delved into the science goals that had been defined under each focus area. For each science goal, the teams were asked to define what needed to be measured, when it needed to be measure, how often and for how long?
Science Goal: Understand and quantify sensitivities of climate to forcings and feedbacks.
Forcings: solar, CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, O3
Feedbacks: clouds, H2O(v), albedo, aerosols, oceans, O3
Unique Requirements: insitu, sustained, systematic, diurnal, over oceans
Integration with: ARM networks, satellites, models, ocean observing, radiosonde, lidar
Spatial: ARM—arctic, mid-continent -100km + flexibility (access to remote regions); Up to 20km (up and down to surface
Temporal: diurnal - min. 5/flight days across 3 weeks; full seasonal 4 times per year; simultaneity
Instruments: H2O(v) insitu; TP; B.B. SW+LW; Particle Probe; Radar (particle reflectivity); Lidar (small particle reflectivity); Microwave radiometer (profiles); Infra-red spectrometer; Wind lidar; Dropsondes (GPS, T,P,W); Electrification (field probes) mid-latitude
Special Cases: aerosols - urban volcanoes; albedo - polar
Priorities: clouds, H2O, aerosols, albedo
We want to make any use of UAVs with anything that's already in existence in addition to using the first 3 ARM sites. We agreed 20 km is critical to the measurements we want. We'd like to see 5 flight days taking place in each location for each of the 4 seasons. The flight days should be spread out over a few weeks. We designed our dream suite of instruments. We got into an interesting discussion about accuracy. We agreed that we could address more science if any of the instruments were improved upon. We agreed that we could have progress in all these areas by adding to the instrument suite that was previously designed. We can do work in urban areas as well as in albedos.
Science Goal: Sources and sinks of CO2 & methane (quantify and locate natural and anthropogenic)
• UAVs coordinated with surface and orbital assets and models
• UAVs alone
We looked at where UAVs would have the most impact. We tried to understand processes and thought the most utility here would be closer to the boundary layer. We would understand how things get into the troposphere. There's a list of potential campaigns in the short-term, over the next 5 years. We would focus on the Amazon, the southern ocean, and the ARM sites, as well as a couple of sites listed here. This all led us to a possible campaign is this unknown source of methane. It's not confounded by large diurnal cycles. We didn't get very far in the 'When' and 'How Often' categories. We did talk about the North America campaign and we'd like to get involved in some intensive campaign.
Science Goal: How is the biosphere changing?
Science Goal: Decrease uncertainties in models (CO2 emission regions; CH4 emission regions)
Understanding processes (regional variability; short-term variation)
The gas emissions from the surface have reactions to the climate change. How does the natural emission of CO2 change in response to the climate change? Is it positive or negative feedback?
One of the things you want to do is have prediction of these processes. There are already models that can do this and we want to decrease the uncertainties in these models. We want to pick areas that are particularly sensitive to change.
We agreed that understanding the processes are important for understanding the scale. What you see from satellites is what is really happening. To understand the detail, UAVs play a very important role. The regions typical for validation are where we want to start. The fundamental issues that emerge from our discussion is that we need the intermediate scale between satellite and aircraft so we can fill in the gaps of the picture we have right now. We're looking for natural laboratories where we can do investigative work to improve our understanding of the processes.
What: CO2; H2O; CH4
From this: regions explored - typical for validation; extremes for exploration
Observation Strategy: define boundary layer (ocean, land, smooth, rough, wind speed)
Technology development: miniaturization; multiple sondes (or mini-UAVs); mini-gliders?
Fundamental Issues: intermediate scale between satellite and high flying aircraft and jeep; work on natural laboratories (investigator-driver)
Science Goal: Characterization (shifts/changes) of frozen part (cryosphere) of water cycle earth surface (ocean & land) in response to climate change
Objectives: Trending (baseline) - total frozen reservoir (global/annual change/regional); Measure surface area, depth, density; Understanding response & feedback (energy cycle - solar + current and drivers); Focus on bellweather areas (visually/active areas - reasonable time space - high rate of change)
Here is a pathway where we think about how UAVs play into the mix. We suggest that UAVs be in areas where we need frequent repeats and high resolution. We think that UAVs will need long duration. They don't particularly high altitude. We'll need to get into understanding of what drives the changes we see. We need surface area depth and density.
UAV Altitude (ft)Missions: Global Observation I of III
Science Goal: Improve high impact weather forecasts
We came up with the idea of CORTS. This stands for calibration for real time system. Using UAVs help in research mode to generate algorithms to calculate things like ice fluxes. You're using a UAV to calibrate a remotely sensed object, like radar and satellite to spread the knowledge over a wider area. You do that within an intensive observation period. This is not just for one UAV, but also for a swarm of them.
Science Goal:Improve prediction of climate variability and change
• sustained• weekly updates for verified profiles• hourly for cloud
• seasonal variability
• resolution• distribution• regions
We're looking to put 200-400 global station points as a good start. We talked about having them above the surface. We see them at 300 m intervals above the surface. There is a special case of aerosols. It probably would be more concentrated in industrial areas.
We talked about what kind of time resolution and we had a goal of taking 8 measurements a day and could cover the diurnal cycles.
We felt the UAVs offer a lot to this kinds of system, especially in the vertical measurements. It might take 4 years to do a demo phase to put this system together. We're planning the system for five years from now.
2x day / 10yrs
Geo sat tracks
UAVMissions: Global Observation III of III
Science Goal:Critical physical processes: storms, climate change trends
We want UAVs which can fly long distances, which preclude manned missions. Mars covers thousands of kilometers in range. The vertical question is important to that extent we're looking at something like 50 millibars in resolution to go after the aerosol question.
We want to do that over time for about 10 years. In the Pacific, we'd still be going for vertical movement over long spatial scales.
Aerosols - in situ
10km - s awe place
10km - lead
Why not now?
Need to reduce risk to instrument?
Cost of ???
Merging of data
Warm pool - N. of Australia
Science Goal: Quantify change in the chemical composition of the atmosphere
Science Goal: Figure out the role of aerosols in global warming
Possibly using dropsondes to create profiles to measure the chemical in the atmosphere. There is a whole different chemistry in carbonaceous aerosols. These could be distributed in a number of platforms. This could be focused around the boundary layer.
The last group included aerosols like volcanic eruptions. Again, for these we need to get in close to the source, so of course the UAVs will be key. These would be smaller UAVs.
• volcanoes• wildfires• dust
Science Goal: Role of water vapor & cloud-radiative feedback (predictability and climate control)
We subdivided the topic into three major areas. We subdivided even further under one of these. We expanded the scope of it a bit. The blue comments are from the initial discussion. The red comments are about the instruments. The green comments are from visitors who came by. We appreciate those and tried to incorporate them as much as possible.
(% cloud cover - might not be adequate characterization)
In the next round of work, each team pored over the science goals defined in the morning to discover the requirements for a specific technology: Platforms, Instrumentation, Operations and Data & Communications.
Look across the science goals and each observation (there may be several observations within each goal), and identify any solutions that may be required for the technology that you have been assigned. Also note any special capabilities or properties needed. Finally, identify/document any assumptions you’ve made.
State of the Art
Global Hawk 60,000 ft 36 hours
Altair 50,000 ft 32 hours
Helios 100,000 ft 12 hours – week
Zephyr 50-100k ft weeks - months
Interfaces: Other systems; Vehicles (formation flying & mother/daughter); platforms, instruments, ground systems, science systems
Instruments Required for Physical Sampling
# of sensors is application-dependant. Sensor type is UAV Platform-dependant.
UAV Adaptation Issues
ALL INSTRUMENT PROBES
ALL INSTRUMENT PROBES
UAV Adaptation Issues
Start with existing standards for A/C
WMO, BUFR or EOS
USP Community Formats – spatial & temporal tagging
Must survey end users for standards, storage and archiving needs.
Learn from the past – there is never sufficient funds allocated for data acquisitionanalysis and archiving
Downloading data from remote locations
Standards – There are no new data from UAV’s. Standards are in place.
Bandwidth – Some tradeoff between bandwidth and on-board processing
There are limitations to bandwidth based on telemetry.
In the final two rounds of work, teams focused on a variety of topics. Several groups worked to identify technology gaps and to develop roadmaps to address those gaps. Other teams worked on the vision for a joint program, innovative uses for UAV’s, developing responses to an RFI based on the work of this session, and next steps. The output of the last two rounds is represented in the following slides.
“We considered the gaps for airframes/platforms. We looked at in situ vs. remote, large vs. small, fast vs long. It takes more people to fly a UAV than it does a manned vehicle. All of these things add cost to ownership.
A big multi-use UAV where you can trade out instruments will be a lower cost situation. Finding a common instrument interface is very important and probably a gap we need to think about.
If you have a unique mission where things are integrated into the payload, it's better to make lots of them and be able to use and lose them. Environmentally you may not be able to lose them as much as you might want.
The cost per hour of use will vary with the mass divided by the utilization of the unit. The longer it flies the less time there is to work on it. The higher utilization of the unit, the longer the amortization. The big problem is the availability. “