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UTILIZATION OF UAV’s FOR GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH A Summary and Synthesis of Workshop 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview Page 2 Draft Vision Statement Page 3 Missions: Overview Page 4 Missions: Climate Page 5 Missions: Land & Ocean Surface Page 7

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A Summary and Synthesis of Workshop 2


Overview Page 2

Draft Vision Statement Page 3

Missions: Overview Page 4

Missions: Climate Page 5

Missions: Land & Ocean Surface Page 7

Missions: Global Observations Page 10

Missions: Atmospheric Observations Page 13

Technology: Overview Page 16

Technology: Platforms Page 17

Technology: Instrumentation Page 22

Technology: Operations Page 27

Technology: Data and Communications Page 29

Gaps, Roadmaps & Vision: Overview Page 31

Gaps & Roadmaps Page 32

Ideas for Joint NASA/NOAA/DOE Programs Page 35

Ideas for Innovative UAV Uses Page 36

UAV-Enabled Global Observation System Page 37

Ideas for Next Steps Page 38


What we have in common forms the basis of our collaboration - the focus on the goals developed in our first workshop in San Diego. From there, there is no limit to what we can do.

On December 7th and 8th, 2004, DOC/NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL), NASA Science and Aeronautics Research Mission Directorates, and DOE Office of Science sponsored the second in a series of workshops on the Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Global Climate Change Research. Participants from NASA, NOAA, and the Department of Energy gathered together with researchers, scientists, engineers and industry representatives to build upon the work completed in the first workshop.

This session began with a series of presentations about the program objectives of the three agencies, about the requirements for a research program, and about the current capabilities of UAVs. The group then became familiar with the 11 science goals developed in the first workshop. Participants expanded upon these missions, clarifying the observations needed for each as well as when and where these observations would need to take place.

The group then looked at the technology and operations as well as the gaps and roadmaps needed to realize these goals. Finally we used a current NASA RFI document to drive some of the groups to put an outline together for a few of the goals while other groups looked at the next steps in the collaboration to move the group to realizing the objective of a global climate change observation system.

This document is a summary of the group’s work.

draft vision statement
Draft Vision Statement

“UAV’s bridge the gap between Earth and space to understand and protect our planet.”

  • Elements of a Mission Statement
  • Economy and Early Warning (Climate)
  • Fill Critical Gaps in Earth Observing System
  • UAV Critical Role in Integrated Global Observing System (enabler and integrator)
  • US Leadership (opportunity to lead in aerospace and global observation)
  • UAV’s as Available Capability for Monitoring
  • UAV’s can Deliver Unique Scientific Measurements
  • Magnify the Value of Existing Investments (satellites)
  • Proposed Presentation Format for NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration
  • Why is this important?
  • Vision: Drawn from CCSP, GEOSS, IEOS, IORS, USCOP
  • Examples: Arctic, Hurricane Tracking and Prediction
  • Compelling, visceral story that motivates the important of climate change and prediction
  • How can we make a difference?
  • Consistent with current administration climate thrust (but not uniquely linked to this administration)
  • Magnify value of current investments (satellites, piloted platforms, ground observations)
  • Address gaps in current capabilities (examples…)
  • Provide new and unique capabilities (examples…)
  • Current agencies’ programs and opportunities for collaboration and efficiency
  • How much will it cost?
  • We will need to have some estimate of the cost and benefits from the proposed collaboration.
missions overview
Missions: Overview


In the first round of work, groups reviewed the focus areas identified in the first workshop: Climate, Land & Ocean Surface, Global Observations, and Atmospheric Observations. Out of these groups, small teams then delved into the science goals that had been defined under each focus area. For each science goal, the teams were asked to define what needed to be measured, when it needed to be measure, how often and for how long?

missions climate i of ii
Missions: Climate I of II

Science Goal: Understand and quantify sensitivities of climate to forcings and feedbacks.

Forcings: solar, CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, O3

Feedbacks: clouds, H2O(v), albedo, aerosols, oceans, O3

Unique Requirements: insitu, sustained, systematic, diurnal, over oceans

Integration with: ARM networks, satellites, models, ocean observing, radiosonde, lidar

Spatial: ARM—arctic, mid-continent -100km + flexibility (access to remote regions); Up to 20km (up and down to surface

Temporal: diurnal - min. 5/flight days across 3 weeks; full seasonal 4 times per year; simultaneity

Instruments: H2O(v) insitu; TP; B.B. SW+LW; Particle Probe; Radar (particle reflectivity); Lidar (small particle reflectivity); Microwave radiometer (profiles); Infra-red spectrometer; Wind lidar; Dropsondes (GPS, T,P,W); Electrification (field probes) mid-latitude

Special Cases: aerosols - urban volcanoes; albedo - polar

Priorities: clouds, H2O, aerosols, albedo

We want to make any use of UAVs with anything that's already in existence in addition to using the first 3 ARM sites. We agreed 20 km is critical to the measurements we want. We'd like to see 5 flight days taking place in each location for each of the 4 seasons. The flight days should be spread out over a few weeks. We designed our dream suite of instruments. We got into an interesting discussion about accuracy. We agreed that we could address more science if any of the instruments were improved upon. We agreed that we could have progress in all these areas by adding to the instrument suite that was previously designed. We can do work in urban areas as well as in albedos.

missions climate ii of ii
Missions: Climate II of II

Science Goal: Sources and sinks of CO2 & methane (quantify and locate natural and anthropogenic)

• UAVs coordinated with surface and orbital assets and models

• UAVs alone

We looked at where UAVs would have the most impact. We tried to understand processes and thought the most utility here would be closer to the boundary layer. We would understand how things get into the troposphere. There's a list of potential campaigns in the short-term, over the next 5 years. We would focus on the Amazon, the southern ocean, and the ARM sites, as well as a couple of sites listed here. This all led us to a possible campaign is this unknown source of methane. It's not confounded by large diurnal cycles. We didn't get very far in the 'When' and 'How Often' categories. We did talk about the North America campaign and we'd like to get involved in some intensive campaign.

missions land ocean surface i of iii
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface I of III

Science Goal: How is the biosphere changing?

missions land ocean surface ii of iii
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface II of III

Science Goal: Decrease uncertainties in models (CO2 emission regions; CH4 emission regions)

Understanding processes (regional variability; short-term variation)

The gas emissions from the surface have reactions to the climate change. How does the natural emission of CO2 change in response to the climate change? Is it positive or negative feedback?

One of the things you want to do is have prediction of these processes. There are already models that can do this and we want to decrease the uncertainties in these models. We want to pick areas that are particularly sensitive to change.

We agreed that understanding the processes are important for understanding the scale. What you see from satellites is what is really happening. To understand the detail, UAVs play a very important role. The regions typical for validation are where we want to start. The fundamental issues that emerge from our discussion is that we need the intermediate scale between satellite and aircraft so we can fill in the gaps of the picture we have right now. We're looking for natural laboratories where we can do investigative work to improve our understanding of the processes.

What: CO2; H2O; CH4

From this: regions explored - typical for validation; extremes for exploration

Observation Strategy: define boundary layer (ocean, land, smooth, rough, wind speed)

Technology development: miniaturization; multiple sondes (or mini-UAVs); mini-gliders?

Fundamental Issues: intermediate scale between satellite and high flying aircraft and jeep; work on natural laboratories (investigator-driver)

missions land ocean surface iii of iii
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface III of III

Science Goal: Characterization (shifts/changes) of frozen part (cryosphere) of water cycle earth surface (ocean & land) in response to climate change

Objectives: Trending (baseline) - total frozen reservoir (global/annual change/regional); Measure surface area, depth, density; Understanding response & feedback (energy cycle - solar + current and drivers); Focus on bellweather areas (visually/active areas - reasonable time space - high rate of change)

Here is a pathway where we think about how UAVs play into the mix. We suggest that UAVs be in areas where we need frequent repeats and high resolution. We think that UAVs will need long duration. They don't particularly high altitude. We'll need to get into understanding of what drives the changes we see. We need surface area depth and density.

missions global observation i of iii

Altitude Sensor & Mission Dependant

Forecast Improvement





UAV Altitude (ft)

Missions: Global Observation I of III

Science Goal: Improve high impact weather forecasts

We came up with the idea of CORTS. This stands for calibration for real time system. Using UAVs help in research mode to generate algorithms to calculate things like ice fluxes. You're using a UAV to calibrate a remotely sensed object, like radar and satellite to spread the knowledge over a wider area. You do that within an intensive observation period. This is not just for one UAV, but also for a swarm of them.

missions global observation ii of iii
Missions: Global Observation II of III

Science Goal:Improve prediction of climate variability and change

• sustained• weekly updates for verified profiles• hourly for cloud

• seasonal variability

• resolution• distribution• regions

We're looking to put 200-400 global station points as a good start. We talked about having them above the surface. We see them at 300 m intervals above the surface. There is a special case of aerosols. It probably would be more concentrated in industrial areas.

We talked about what kind of time resolution and we had a goal of taking 8 measurements a day and could cover the diurnal cycles.

We felt the UAVs offer a lot to this kinds of system, especially in the vertical measurements. It might take 4 years to do a demo phase to put this system together. We're planning the system for five years from now.

missions global observation iii of iii


1000’s km


100m scale




=OP -50mb

2x day / 10yrs

Geo sat tracks


Missions: Global Observation III of III

Science Goal:Critical physical processes: storms, climate change trends

We want UAVs which can fly long distances, which preclude manned missions. Mars covers thousands of kilometers in range. The vertical question is important to that extent we're looking at something like 50 millibars in resolution to go after the aerosol question.

We want to do that over time for about 10 years. In the Pacific, we'd still be going for vertical movement over long spatial scales.



Aerosols - in situ



10km - s awe place

10km - lead


Why not now?




Need to reduce risk to instrument?

Cost of ???




Data systems




Merging of data


Warm pool - N. of Australia

missions atmospheric observation i of iii
Missions: Atmospheric Observation I of III

Science Goal: Quantify change in the chemical composition of the atmosphere

missions atmospheric observation ii of iii
Missions: Atmospheric Observation II of III

Science Goal: Figure out the role of aerosols in global warming

Possibly using dropsondes to create profiles to measure the chemical in the atmosphere. There is a whole different chemistry in carbonaceous aerosols. These could be distributed in a number of platforms. This could be focused around the boundary layer.

The last group included aerosols like volcanic eruptions. Again, for these we need to get in close to the source, so of course the UAVs will be key. These would be smaller UAVs.

• volcanoes• wildfires• dust

missions atmospheric observation iii of iii
Missions: Atmospheric Observation III of III

Science Goal: Role of water vapor & cloud-radiative feedback (predictability and climate control)

We subdivided the topic into three major areas. We subdivided even further under one of these. We expanded the scope of it a bit. The blue comments are from the initial discussion. The red comments are about the instruments. The green comments are from visitors who came by. We appreciate those and tried to incorporate them as much as possible.



(0.1C accuracy)

(% cloud cover - might not be adequate characterization)

technology overview
Technology: Overview


In the next round of work, each team pored over the science goals defined in the morning to discover the requirements for a specific technology: Platforms, Instrumentation, Operations and Data & Communications.


Look across the science goals and each observation (there may be several observations within each goal), and identify any solutions that may be required for the technology that you have been assigned. Also note any special capabilities or properties needed. Finally, identify/document any assumptions you’ve made.  

technology high altitude platform
Technology – High Altitude Platform
  • Issues
  • Performance
  • 40,000ft +
  • Ceiling
  • Vertical Profiling
  • Payload (mass, volume, power)
  • Range
  • Endurance
  • Cruise Speed
  • Payload Environment (stability, thermal, vibration)
  • Lifecycle Cost
  • Deployability – no significant runway limitations
  • Operability
  • All Weather
    • Icing
    • Turbulence
    • Crosswinds (landing and take off)
  • Autonomy
  • Global Airspace
  • Over-the-Horizon Command & Control
  • Reliability (MTBF > 20-50k hours)
  • Environmental - propulsion

State of the Art

Global Hawk 60,000 ft 36 hours

Altair 50,000 ft 32 hours

Innovative Concepts

Helios 100,000 ft 12 hours – week

Zephyr 50-100k ft weeks - months

technology mid altitude platform
Technology – Mid-Altitude Platform
  • Assumptions
  • 25,000-30,000 ft
  • Can use heavier instrument suites
  • Robust
  • Dropsondes critical capability
  • Quick-look data
  • Multi-use or tailored
  • Others
  • Rapid response
  • Loitering
  • Cal/Val
  • Gap filling
  • General Capabilities Needed
  • UAV-Unique
  • Robustness for turbulence
  • Long endurance – trans-oceanic & loitering
  • Flight Characteristics
  • Structure similar to regional aircraft
  • Slow speed & high resolution
  • Command & Control
  • Distributed basing for global coverage
  • “Over the horizon” communications
  • Payload
  • Large & reconfigurable (i.e. antennae)
  • Variable size for specific missions
  • Tailored aircraft specific to mission & grid
  • Missons
  • High Impact Weather
  • Autonomy
    • Tailored mission
    • Quick-look data is key here
    • Diurnal fire monitoring
  • Command & Control – rapid response
  • Atmospheric Composition
  • Flight characteristics – variable short/fast climb rate
  • Cryosphere
  • Flight characteristics – de-icing for polar/cold environments
technology low altitude platform1
Technology – Low Altitude Platform

Interfaces: Other systems; Vehicles (formation flying & mother/daughter); platforms, instruments, ground systems, science systems

technology remote sensing instrumentation1
Technology – Remote Sensing Instrumentation
  • UAV ? Mission Design Issues
  • Cloud, aerosol and gas issues cannot likely be completely address by remote sensors. (Ocean and land issues probably can.) We need to device a coordinated fleet mission.
  • Passive sensors are typically small mass/volume – they can use HALE
  • Active sensors are typically larger mass/volume. Most science questions requiring active remote sensors do not need high altitude – they can use LALE or MALE)
technology in situ instrumentation
Technology – In Situ Instrumentation

Instruments Required for Physical Sampling

Sampled Items

# of sensors is application-dependant. Sensor type is UAV Platform-dependant.

technology in situ instrumentation adaptation i of ii
Technology – In Situ Instrumentation (Adaptation I of II)


UAV Adaptation Issues


technology in situ instrumentation adaptation ii of ii
Technology – In Situ Instrumentation (Adaptation II of II)



UAV Adaptation Issues

technology platform operations
Technology – Platform Operations
  • Terms
  • C3 = BLOS (oth), LOS (20km radius)
  • Avail = Sorty rate, deployability (local, regional, global
    • Intensive Observation Period (IOP)
  • Fleet Size/Mix = platform collaborations
    • Mother/daughter = “local” ops
    • Formation Flight = “Local Ops”
    • “Local” = LOS
  • OnBoard = IMM – Intelligent Mission Management (cont. management), Level of Autonomy
  • Ground Station = dedicated GCS with data “network”
  • IA Collaboration =
    • Ops - contract vehicles/ FLT services – “low”
    • R&D – joint NASA/NOAA/DOE – “oftens”/high
      • (e.g. NASA operates platform)
  • Air Space – “File & Fly” (globally, equivalent to piloted)
  • Affordability =
    • ACQ = f(capability)
    • OPS = $400/hour
    • Multi A/C per operator
technology integrated observing operations
Technology – Integrated Observing Operations
  • Integrate ground, sub-orbital and orbital observation systems
  • Weather Forecasting: event-driven vs. continuous
    • Fill data voids (routine) – 4D sounding over ocean and high latitudes
    • Bases should be distributed appropriately (100’s of observations per day)
    • Launch UAV’s on regular schedule, adjustable tracks, from surface to thousands of meters
  • Severe Weather – Surge of extra vehicles
  • Consistencies Across Focus Areas
  • Long Endurance
  • Remote and/or dangerous areas
  • Similar data types
    • State quantities
    • Chemical compounds
    • Link satellite and surface data
    • Measure similar parameters
  • How does UAV integration differ from existing field operations?
  • Safety and regulatory issues not uniformly settled or addressed globally
  • Integration with manned aircraft (safety)
  • Extended UAV endurance – 24-7 if possible
  • 24-7 staff on ground
  • Satellite data link – SMB/s
  • Extensive onboard storage
  • Hazardous conditions ok away from people
  • Proactively address safety/regulation as NASA: UNITE/ACCESS 5
technology data
Technology - Data

Start with existing standards for A/C


USP Community Formats – spatial & temporal tagging

Must survey end users for standards, storage and archiving needs.

Learn from the past – there is never sufficient funds allocated for data acquisitionanalysis and archiving

Downloading data from remote locations

technology communications
Technology - Communications
  • Scenarios
  • Weather Prediction
    • Low bandwidth and volume
    • Real time
  • Researchers / Disaster Management
    • Real Time
    • Med-High bandwidth
  • Researchers / Model Developers
    • Very high data volume
    • Not real time

Standards – There are no new data from UAV’s. Standards are in place.

Bandwidth – Some tradeoff between bandwidth and on-board processing

There are limitations to bandwidth based on telemetry.

gaps roadmaps vision overview
Gaps, Roadmaps & Vision: Overview


In the final two rounds of work, teams focused on a variety of topics. Several groups worked to identify technology gaps and to develop roadmaps to address those gaps. Other teams worked on the vision for a joint program, innovative uses for UAV’s, developing responses to an RFI based on the work of this session, and next steps. The output of the last two rounds is represented in the following slides.

gaps roadmaps platform
Gaps & Roadmaps – Platform

“We considered the gaps for airframes/platforms. We looked at in situ vs. remote, large vs. small, fast vs long. It takes more people to fly a UAV than it does a manned vehicle. All of these things add cost to ownership.

A big multi-use UAV where you can trade out instruments will be a lower cost situation. Finding a common instrument interface is very important and probably a gap we need to think about.

If you have a unique mission where things are integrated into the payload, it's better to make lots of them and be able to use and lose them. Environmentally you may not be able to lose them as much as you might want.

The cost per hour of use will vary with the mass divided by the utilization of the unit. The longer it flies the less time there is to work on it. The higher utilization of the unit, the longer the amortization. The big problem is the availability. “

  • Overarching Issues
  • Cost per hour
    • =mass/endurance, utilization
    • # people
  • Availability
    • Other demands
    • Basing OPS
  • Gap – Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Consolidated Regional Survey
  • Altitude: 0 – 5km
  • Payload: 250kgm (remote) / 5-40kgm (In situ)
  • Speed: ~50-100 knots
  • Range: Local
  • Duration: 1-5 days
  • 2-ship pair?
  • Gap – Carbon Cycle
  • Altitude: 20m – 5km
  • Payload: 100kgm
  • Speed: 100-200 knots
  • Range: 10,000km
  • Duration: multi-day
  • All-weather – Icing & Turbulence
  • Maneuverable for terrain avoidance
  • Gap – Data Relay / Hurricane Monitoring
  • Altitude: >20km
  • Payload: 200kgm (Data link & dropsondes)
  • Speed: Maintain station 99.9%
  • Range: Global / +/- 30 degrees latitude
  • Duration: Continuous
  • Low Cost: ~ $100 / flight hour
  • Gap – Polar
  • Altitude: 1-18 km
  • Payload: 500-1000kgm (remote) / 25-30kgm (In situ)
  • Speed: 100-400 knots
  • Range: 10,000km - ?
  • Duration: Months!
gaps roadmaps datacomm
Gaps & Roadmaps – DataComm
  • Requirements
  • AC control OTH/LOS – Redundant
  • Telepresence
    • Instrument control
    • Data Download (Not necessary to encrypt)
      • Instrument health
      • Target opportunities / Phenomenology
  • Assumption: Enough on-board storage
  • Consideration: Some countries may not want data publicly available (e.g. Eastern Europe, Asia, China)
ideas for nasa noaa doe joint efforts
Ideas for NASA – NOAA – DOE Joint Efforts
  • Joint Program Science Goals
  • Weather – Improve 1-14 day forecast
  • Climate
  • Demo of Platform and Sensor Capability
  • Emergency Response (DHS, Wildfire)
  • Approach
  • Multiple platform types
    • Aerosond
    • Hale ROA
    • Test Dallgater concept (?)
  • Cooperation with International Organizations
    • e.g. THORPex & IPY
  • Comparison to Satellites (e.g. things satellites do not do well)
  • Joint Campaigns with multiple platform capabilities
  • Roles
  • All 3 agencies have complementary roles
    • NASA – Technology provider & developer
    • NOAA – Operational user
    • DOE – Research use
    • All – Instruments, science & mission requirements
  • Observations
  • Weather
    • Adaptive Observations in NE Pacific
      • Model-driven
      • Fast response (24 ours)
      • Consistent with THORPex
    • Hurricanes
    • Arctic – adaptive observations
  • Climate
    • Arctic
      • Full Atmosphere Characterization
        • All weather
        • Eulerian and Iangrangian
      • Surface Characterization
        • Area, Depth, Density of ice
        • Snow/water equivalent
        • Openings, free water
    • Carbon
      • Tundra, High Latitude, Inaccessible Areas
  • Emergency Response
    • Plume characterization
ideas for innovative uses of uav s
Ideas for Innovative Uses of UAV’s
  • Contingency Deployment
  • Urban emergencies
  • Natural disasters
  • Adaptive Observations
  • Multi-use Systems
  • Combined missions
    • Border surveillance
    • Communication relay
    • Weather surveillance
  • Education mission monitoring (Cameras & web page)
    • Outreach
  • Miniaturization / Cost Reduction
  • Instrumentation
  • Flight platform – frangible (?) (size)
  • UAV Ensembles
  • Swarms
  • Parent/Child
  • Sampling upward – deploying inexpensive rocket sonde
  • Dispersive platforms (break apart, come together)
  • Deployment from piloted aircraft
  • Space Environment Monitoring
  • Planetary missions
  • Extreme upper atmosphere sampling
  • Surface Sampling – UAV Lands VSTOL
  • Ice/Water
  • Landsurface
  • Inflight Refueling
  • Extended Missions
  • Fleet Support
  • Tethered Platforms
  • Fixed urban obs with vertical crawler
  • Environmental remote sensing
  • Data Processing on UAV
  • Transmission efficiency
  • Peer to Peer Transmission Strat.
  • Ruggedized Platforms
  • De-icing
  • Thunderstorm Penetration
  • Adaptable aerodynamics
  • Interactive Mission
  • Requests
  • Queued priorities
  • Intelligent Phenomenological Monitoring
  • Fronts
  • Plumes
  • Power Alternatives
  • Soaring exploitation
  • Piezio electric
uav enabled global observation system
UAV-Enabled Global Observation System
  • Suggested Approach
  • Systems engineering approach
  • Proof of concept demos
  • Mixed platform approach
  • Develop CBNOPS
  • Integrate with satellites & ground demo
  • Integrate with other US agencies and international agencies
  • Potential Benefits
  • Risk reduction to CCSP
  • Allows science unavailable from satellites or instead of satellites
    • Increases the value of satellites
  • Performance Capability Objectives
  • Safe & efficient
  • Grid-based sustained measurement system
  • Data and ops needs to be networked with ground, UAV’s and satellites
  • System needs to be able to support vertical profiles
    • 0-100,000ft
    • Dropsondes, MEMS
    • Altitude change
  • Long endurance > 24hours
  • Deployable – world wide coverage
  • Flexible & adaptable observations
  • Complementary platform & solutions (hi & low speed)
  • Global airspace operations
  • Relationship to National Priorities
  • Climate change science program
  • Global Earth Observation System (GEOSS)
  • OSTP R&D Guidelines
    • HS
    • Network & Info technology
    • Namu
    • Climate & water **
    • Hydrogen fuel cells
  • Relationship to Existing Programs
  • Vehicle systems programs
  • VPDO
  • Access 5/UNITE FAA
  • DOD UAV roadmap
  • Relationship to Exploration Vision
  • Tech spinoff to PFV
    • 100k vehicle similar to Mars
    • On-board data/science processing
    • Autonomy
  • Technology Gaps
  • Communication bandwidth over the poles
  • Sensors sized to fit in UAV’s (size, mass, power)
  • Robust UAV’s (icing and storm penetration)
  • Propulsion & Power
  • Autonomy
ideas for next steps
Ideas for Next Steps
  • Get Senior Management Buy-In for a FY07 New Initiative
  • Establish IPDO-like organization to capture resources
  • Vision statement – function of societal/economic impact
  • Mission needs statement
  • Identify and include stakeholders
  • Recruit advocates
  • Other Ideas for Next Steps
  • Get Senior Management buy-in
  • Get Science Committee buy-in
  • Get INO buy-in
  • Identify high level requirements
  • Prioritize science needs as a function of scientific impacts
  • Identify stakeholders
  • Identify capabilities
  • Develop technology gaps and roadmaps
  • Risk assessments
  • Identify barriers
  • Perform analyses of alternatives
  • Perform proof of concept demos & pilot projects
  • Define success criteria
  • Establish milestones & project structure
  • Training and marketing
  • Create joint organization
  • Identify and coordinate existing efforts that contribute to our goals
  • Stoke the energy!