NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration for Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Climate Change and Global Weather Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration for Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Climate Change and Global Weather Research
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NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration for Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Climate Change and Global Weather Research

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  1. NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration for Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Climate Change and Global Weather Research

  2. NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration for Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Climate Change and Global Weather Research December 7, 2004 Towards an Integrated Global Observation System “Land, Sea, Air & Space… Together”

  3. Presentation Objectives • Provide a reference framework on the current state of UAV capabilities and planned technology investment strategies • Suggest grounds rules and assumptions relevant to the scope and desired outcomes of this workshop

  4. Presentation Content • Relevance to Agency National Goals and Objective • Relationship to the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate • Current HALE UAV Platform Capabilities • HALE UAV Development within the Vehicle Systems Program • Recommended Next Steps

  5. National Goals and Objectives National Goal for NASA • Advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. National Objectives for NASA • Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; • Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and • Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. • Study the Earth system from space and develop new space-based and related capabilities for this purpose.

  6. Strategic Planning Transformation - Paradigm Shift 10. Sun-Earth Connection 13. Advanced Aero Technologies 9. Earth System Dynamics & Processes

  7. Aeronautics Research Mission To pioneer and validate high-payoff aeronautical technologies To improve the quality of life To enable exploration and discovery To extend the benefits of our innovation throughout society. Our success is measured by the extent to which our results are used by others to improve the quality of life and enable exploration and scientific knowledge

  8. Aeronautics Research Three Integrated Programs

  9. Vehicle SystemsProgram Overview GOAL: Provide technology foundation for future aerospace vehicles OUTCOMES (FY2005-09): • Environment • 70% NOx Reduction for subsonic transports • Plus foundation technologies for an additional 10% reduction • 25% CO2 Reduction for subsonic transports • Plus foundation technologies for an additional 25% reduction • 10 dB Noise Reduction for subsonic transports • Plus foundation technologies for an additional 10 dB reduction • 24 dB noise reduction for advanced general aviation aircraft • Define “acceptable sonic boom” for overland super-cruising aircraft • Mobility • 10X training reduction for advanced general aviation aircraft • 2X increase in cruise Mach number for small transport aircraft while maintaining “acceptable sonic boom” • Define economically viable and technically feasible concepts for heavy-lift rotorcraft • Define economically viable and technically feasible concepts for extreme short takeoff and landing aircraft New Missions Policies, procedures, and standards for UAV operations in the National Airspace System at altitudes above 18K feet Flight demonstration of High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft in the National Airspace System Flight demonstration in a relevant environment of a Planetary Surrogate Vehicle Technologies to double the energy density of fuel cells for flight applications Technologies for improving the reliability of commercial UAVs by a factor of 2

  10. Linking Technologies to Capabilities

  11. Science UAV Mission Requirements SOLEO Altitude (kft) Source: Tim Cox, DFRC

  12. Current Science UAV Capabilities Helios (RFC/LH2) 50,000 – 100,000 feet 30 KIAS RPV 14 days to 6 months 5 crew $10M per vehicle 100 kg HALE Global Hawk 40,000-60,000 feet 250 KIAS Autonomous 36 hours (large crew) $20M per vehicle 1000 kg Proteus 40,000-60,000 feet 200 KIAS Piloted Surrogate 24 hours 2+ crew $12M per vehicle 1000 kg HALE Predator B/Altair 40,000-52,000 feet 170 KIAS RPV 32 hours 2+ crew $6M per vehicle 400 kg MALE Aerosonde-Class 200 – 20,000 feet 35 KIAS RPV - Autonomous 20-30 hours 2-3 crew $75K per vehicle 2-5 kg LALE

  13. VSP Advanced Science UAV Capabilities Required Technologies @ TRL 6 • Current SOA: • 40K ft @ 32 hrs - 700-lb • 60K ft @ 14 hrs - 200-lb • 100K ft @ 1 hrs - 100-lb • RPV or Pre-Programmed • Full Capability Set • Heavy Lift • 100 days @ > 60K ft • Autonomous Operations • Collaborative Engagement • 10-Year Capability Set • 100 days @ 75K ft • 1000-lb Payload • Autonomous Operations • Collaborative Engagement • HALE-ROA Capability Set • 14 days @ 60-70K ft • 400-lb Payload • Autonomous Operations FY04 FY09 FY14 FY19 Development timeline

  14. Notional UAV Platform Capabilities Pseudo-geosynchronous operation High bandwidth, low cost, comm relay - High Altitude - Long Endurance OTH Comm - • Integrated Vehicle • System Monitoring Cost Effective - Autonomous operation Quick response storm tracking • Intelligent Mission • Management Remote Basing - - Adaptive Flight Controls Endurance - - Sense & Avoid Persistent ocean and land observation Flight in global airspace Range - - Contingency Management - Mission Planning Mothership for deployable exploratory probes No CO2 or NOX emissions Disasterdetection and monitoring Multi-ship Operations -

  15. Other Mission-Unique Unmanned Platforms High Altitude Airship 50,000 – 70,000 feet 30-50 KIAS RPV 30 days to 6 months 5 crew $40M per vehicle 10,000 kg HALE Golden-eye UAV 100-3,000 feet 140 KIAS Autonomous 1-4 hours 2+ crew $TBD per vehicle 20 kg LASE Power Beaming 10-1000 feet 15 KIAS RPV 24 hours 1 crew $5 K per vehicle 0.1 kg LALE Micro-UAV 200 - 2500 feet 35 KIAS RPV 1-2 hours 1 crew $10 K per vehicle 0.1 kg LASE

  16. Steps Towards a Global Observation System Science Mission Needs Workshop #1 August ’04 Climate Prediction Global Observations Atmospheric Observations Oceans & Land Surface Workshop #2 December ’04 Network Operation Capabilities UAV Platform Capabilities Instrument & Sensor Capabilities Space Platform Capabilities Information System Capabilities Forecast & Prediction Models Mission Operation Capabilities Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Technology Gaps Joint Planning & Development Concept of Operation Integrated System Requirements Technology Development Roadmap Integrated Program Development Plan

  17. A New Development Paradigm - Transformation Notional Future Weather Demos Notional Future Climate Demos SOLEO Demo FY ’09 2015 Operational Integrated Global Observation System PacPlus Demo FY ’08 Global Hawk Demo FY ’06 We Are Here Altair Demo FY ’05 As seen through the predictive lens for 2015

  18. Summary & Recommendations • Consider unconstrained science observation requirements • Mission-unique platform capabilities beyond current SOA • Assume UAV airspace, reliability and affordability issues resolved within existing NASA Aeronautics Research programs • Think in terms of complete observation systems: • Integrated global observation network: Land, sea, air, space • UAV-optimized science instruments • Integrated information systems for research and operations • Identify capability gaps to support the FY07 budget cycle • Consider “strategic objective” white papers (~2 pages) from each workshop breakout team • To the NASA/Advanced Planning & Integration Office (APIO) • Request For Information (RFI) submittal date is Dec. 10th

  19. Back-ups

  20. VSP Vision for HALE UAVs • Technologies • Active shape control • Lt weight LH2 tanks • Low SFC @ 10 kw • Technologies • Superconductor motors • Multi-functional LH2 tanks • Low SFC @ 500 kw Current SOA: 60 K ft @ 14 hrs, 100 kg 100 K ft @ 1 hrs, 50 kg Solar cells; h=18%, 0.2 kw/kg RFC: 0.25 kw-hr/kg “Sub-Orbital Long Endurance Observer” “Global Ranger” PO #3 PO #1 WL=15 lb/ft2 WL= 2.0 lb/ft2 LH2 propulsion • Capabilities • 7-14 days @ 60 K ft, 200 kg • P/L fraction > 15% • Robust turbulence performance • Capabilities • Global diurnal range operations • 10x payload increase @ 75 K ft • Robust airframe/dispatch reliability • Low cost testbeds • Battery power • Technologies • Inflatable/deployable aero-structures • High power long endurance electric propulsion • Technologies • Light weight airframe • Thin film solar cells • Long endurance energy storage • Autonomous flt ops • Validated design tools • Helios MIB Recommendations “Global Observer” Solar/RFC propulsion PO #2 PO #4 WL = TBD lb/ft2 WL = 1.0 lb/ft2 Hybrid airframe • Capabilities • 1-6 months @ 60 K ft • P/L 150 kg, 2 kw • +/- 40o latitude “Heavy Lifter” • Capabilities • 100 days > 70 K ft • 10,000 kg • Global ops PO = Performance Objectives FY03 FY05 FY07 FY09 FY11 FY13 FY15

  21. Sub-orbital Long Endurance Observer Concepts (notional) Singe Engine Variant Twin Engine Variant Source: Mark Guynn, LaRC

  22. UAV Technology Investments: Relevance to NASA Mission Supports four Agency Strategic Objectives: Objective 1.1: Understand how Earth is changing, better predict change, and understand the consequences for life on Earth Objective 1.2: Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology. Objective 3.2: Enhance the Nation’s security through aeronautical partnerships with DOD and other Government agencies Objective 10.5: Create novel aerospace concepts to support Earth and space science mission

  23. Key Enabling Technologies: HALE UAV’s • Intelligent Mission Management • SOA: Remotely piloted contingency management with lost-link waypoint navigation • Goal: Intelligent Decision Executive Architecture for autonomous, multi-ship, tactical group plan, resource allocation and contingency management for flight safety and mission assurance • Routine Access to the International Airspace • SOA: Ad hoc Certificates of Authorization with 30-60 day lead-time • Goal: Same day “file & fly”, initially for HALE UAV’s, by establishing equivalent levels of safety for manned flight; includes Sense & Avoid, Over-The-Horizon, and System Reliability technologies • Endurance: Electric Propulsion • SOA: 10 kw solar array panels (h = 18%); Regenerative Fuel Cells = 250 w*hr/kg @ 10 kw output • Goal: 20 kw thin film solar cells (h > 15%);Solid Oxide Fuel Cells = 1200 w*hr/kg @ 1,000 kw; • Ruggedized: All Weather Flight Operations • SOA: High altitude operations and clear weather launch & recovery • Goal: All weather launch, recovery and mission operation capabilities using intelligent anti-icing with electrically hardened, hail tolerant composite airframes

  24. Key Enabling Technologies (con’t): • Daughtership Launch, Deploy and Recovery Ops • SOA: Expendable dropsonde sensors @ 0.5 kg per dropsonde • Goal: HALE UAV mothership launch and recovery of smart daughtership dropsondes • Miniaturized UAV Flight Systems and Science Sensors • SOA: Discrete PC-104 class boards: FCC, INS, GPS, and Comm • Goal: Integrated single-board MEMS-class flight systems; embedded MEMS atmospheric chemistry sensors • Aerodynamics:Efficient low Reynolds number airframes • SOA: Re > 1e6 with fixed-geometry wing loading > 1.0 • Goal: Re <<0.5e6 with deployable wing and airframe components • Precision Trajectories and Formations • SOA: Integrated Differential GPS/INS for waypoint navigation and landing systems for two aircraft formations • Goal: Precision trajectories and formations for multi-ship formations and swarms

  25. HALE UAV Science Platform Capabilities 4 2 6 13 1 1000kg 30kg 10,000kg 150kg 200kg 150 125 150kg 150kg 150kg 2000kg 200kg 5 16 21 18 20 50 kg 100 10,000kg 15 3000kg 19 75 Altitude (kft) 200kg 7 17 10 9 14 11 12 8 300 kg 50 200kg 25 3 1 kg 0 Performance Objective #3: Global Ranger FY14 Performance Objective #1: Sub-Orbital Long Endurance Observer FY09 Performance Objective #2: Global Observer FY12 Performance Objective #4: Heavy-Lifter FY20 Current HALE UAV Platforms 1000 kg 200 kg Piloted Aircraft Capability 200kg 1000 kg Current ROA Capability SSMF “Low & Slow” 4 kg 0.1 day 1.0 day 10 day 100 day 0.2 day 0.5 day 5.0 day 2.0 day 50 day 20 day Endurance

  26. Current NASA UAV Program Elements Earth Science Mission Capabilities Transitional Vehicles National Security Partnerships HALE ROA Access to the NAS Mission Capabilities Airspace Capabilities Spiral Development New Platform Operations • Routine access to the NAS • Sense & Avoid sensors • Contingency management • HALE ROA Certification Standards • Precision Trajectory • Precision Formations • Global OTH & iNET • Mission/technology Demos • - Altair • - Global Hawk • - Proteus • - Predator B • - Others • UAV transitional capabilities • Integrated science campaign elements • Multi-agency business models • DHS/Coast Guard • OSD/Sensor Demo • DARPA/J-UCAS • - X-45A/Spiral 0 • - X-45C/Spiral 1 • - Common Operating System • - Autonomous Refueling HALE ROA Platform Development Platform Capabilities • Design tools • Storm Tracker • Global Observer • Global Ranger • Heavy Lifter • Technologies • Lightweight structures • Robust Avionics • Hydrogen Fuel Power Plant Earth Science DoD/DHS Aeronautics Research