UNIT 8 - COTTON, CATTLE & RAILROAD REVIEW
1. COTTON, CATTLE & RAILROAD ERA 1865‐1900 Time of huge economic growth, new industries for Texas and rise of technology. Railroads brought people and business to Texas and enabled farmers and ranchers to transport their products more efficiently. Texas became a leading producer of both cattle and cotton.
2. MEDICINE LODGE TREATY Terms of Treaty: American Indians agreed to live on reservations in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Government would provide them food and supplies, Protected from soldiers. Indians would agree to stop attacking Anglo American settlements.
3. Views of Indians on Medicine Lodge Treaty For: Some Indians signed treaty because of loss of food supply and wanted peace Against: Some Indians did not want to end their way of life: living off the land and hunting buffalo
4. Buffalo Soldiers • All African American Calvary unit in US Army • Fought Indians • Protected settlers • Protected railroad crews • Protected telegraph crews • Called “buffalo soldiers” because Indians gave them nickname out of respect
5. Reasons for Native American pollution decrease • Loss of buffalo due to buffalo hunters • Land that was used for hunting was turned into towns, farms and ranches • War, disease and lack of food killed many Indians
6. Quanah Parker • Last Comanche Chief • Decided to surrender and lead his tribe to white man culture due to lack of food • Became a successful businessman and rancher
7. Reasons for Expansion of Western Frontier • Large amount of land for ranching • Demand for beef was high in eastern and western states • Large supply of wild longhorn cattle
8. Geography of Texas cattle country • - Good climate (mild) • Abundant water sources (lots of water) • Lots of grass to feed cattle
9. Cattle Drives - Cowboys drove cattle north to “cow towns” to where the railroad was located before it came to Texas. They would ship the cattle by railroad to slaughterhouses in the east.
10. Problems of Cattle Drives • - Cattle rustlers and Indians tried to steal cattle • Cowboys were injured or died • Cattle stampedes • Weather storms • Barbed wire made it harder to travel
11. Barbed Wire • - Put up to cut off land that was beingdestroyed by animals of other ranchers • Sometimes enclosed water supply for other ranches and led to need for windmills • Prevented cattle drives from passing through
12. Effects of Railroad - Ended cattle drives because cattle could be now be moved in Texas - Brought new settlers to Texas - New businesses and towns grew at railroad depots and junctions
13. Cattle Trails - Began in southern Texas and ended at “Cow towns” of Abilene, Kansas City, etc. where the railroad was located to ship cattle to slaughterhouses
14. Change of Texas economy in late 1800s - Railroads and factories were built throughout Texas to increase trade
15. Cotton Gin effects in late 1800s - The cotton gin increased production of cotton and made Texas farmers more money - New jobs and new factories to produce cotton
16. End of the open range - Open range is the frontier land where animals roamed freely - New settlers came in and claimed the land for their own - Barbed wire and enclosing land prevented animals from grazing any open land
17. Sharecropping - Definition: System of farming where freed slaves were given land in exchange for a share of the crops (see chart) - Kept them in a life of debt and poverty and restricted their social advancement
18. Legacy of Cotton, Cattle & Railroad Era - Ranching is still a part of Texas economy and cattle products are the highest agriculture income in Texas - Cowboy and ranching lifestyle is a part of Texas culture today
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