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Comprehensive Review Unit

Comprehensive Review Unit

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Comprehensive Review Unit

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  1. World History Comprehensive Review Unit

  2. Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome • Democratic ideas first develop in Greece in limited form around 500 B.C. The concept of a direct democracy is developed around 450 B.C. by the Greeks ruler Pericles. Rome develops the idea of the republic and records fair, impartial laws, establishing the idea of a “government of laws, not of men.”

  3. Judeo-Christian Tradition • Judaism promotes the idea that people are responsible for making moral choices and for fighting against poverty and injustice. Christianity promotes the idea of equality which is central to democracy. The Renaissance and the Reformation further the ideas of individualism and of challenging authoritarian institutions.

  4. Democratic Developments in England • The Magna Carta limits the power of kings and promotes individual rights. The Parliament first develops in the late 13th century and grows stronger over the next four years. As Parliament gains strength, England becomes a constitutional monarchy.

  5. The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions • The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu contribute to the rise of democratic ideals. They inspire the rise of democracy in America and France. The struggle for democracy continues today.

  6. Overview • The rise of democratic ideas has taken thousands of years, beginning with the ancient Greeks and with the rise of Judaism and Christianity. Today, democratic institutions continue to grow and spread throughout the world.

  7. European Renaissance and Reformation Key Ideas

  8. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance The Renaissance, a period of intellectual and artistic creativity, flourishes in Italy, beginning about 1300. Versatile artists transform painting, sculpture, and literature.

  9. The Northern Renaissance • In the 1400’s, Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe, where German and Flemish masters create distinctive works of art. The books of northern Renaissance writers and philosophers become widely available because of the invention of the printing press.

  10. Luther Starts the Reformation • Martin Luther, a German monk, challenges the authority of eh Catholic Church and triggers the Reformation-a movement for religious reform. The Reformation spreads to England when King Henry VIII breaks ties with the Catholic Church.

  11. The Reformation Continues • John Calvin develops a system of Protestant theology that gains popularity among other European reformers. To stem the spread of Protestantism, the Catholic Church initiates its own reforms.

  12. Overview • Two great European movements-the Renaissance and the Reformation-usher in dramatic cultural and social changes. The Renaissance marked the flowering of artistic creativity, while the Reformation led to new Christian beliefs.

  13. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

  14. FARMING IN THE MIDDLE AGES • VILLAGES FEED THEMSELVES • ONE OF THREE FIELDS LEFT FALLOW (EMPTY) TO REGAIN GOOD SOIL • ANIMALS GRAZED IN COMMON PASTURES

  15. DISADVANTAGES • LAND USE INEFFICENT • WASTE OF LAND • FARMERS DIDN’T EXPERIMENT WITH NEW FARMING METHODS

  16. FORCES FOR CHANGE • POPULATION GROWING--MORE FOOD NEEDED • FRENCH BLOCKADE--NO CORN--MORE FOOD NEEDED

  17. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION THE AGRICULTURE REVOLUTION

  18. ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT • WEALTHY LANDLORDS FENCED IN COMMON PASTURES AND EXPERIMENTED WITH NEW FARMING TECHNOLOGY • VILLAGES LOST COMMON LANDS AND POLITICAL POWER, PEASANTS BECAME POORER

  19. CROP ROTATION • FIELDS THAT WERE OUT OF NUTRIENTS BY ONE CROP WERE REPLENISHED (MADE NEW) BY PLANTING DIFFERENT CROPS • FIELDS NOT LEFT FALLOW

  20. OTHER DISCOVERIES • SEED DRILL (JETHRO TULL) • PLANTED SEEDS EFFICENTLY • NEW CROPS: CORN AND POTATO Page 121

  21. RESULTS OF AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION • MORE FOOD AVAILABLE • POPULATION INCREASED

  22. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND FACTORY SYSTEM

  23. DOMESTIC SYSTEM • COTTAGE INDUSTRY COULDN’T KEEP UP WITH DEMAND FOR TEXTILES • SPINNING JENNY, WATER FRAME, AND SPINNING MULE-- IMPROVED Textiles

  24. DOMESTIC SYSTEM • POWER LOOM-- SPED UP WEAVING • COTTON GIN-- SEPARATED SEEDS FROM COTTON

  25. RISE OF THE FACTORY • NEW MACHINES, OFTEN TOO BIG FOR HOMES, WERE PUT INTO FACTORIES • FACTORIES LOCATED NEAR POWER SOURCE:COAL, IRON, WATER

  26. EFFECTS OF FACTORIES • PRICES OF MASS-PRODUCED TEXTILES WERE LOWER THAN-PRODUCED ITEMS • BRITIANS’ TEXTILE INDUSTRY INCREASED ENORMOUSLY • MAJORITY OF VILLAGERS FORCED TO LEAVE TO FIND WORK IN THE FACTORIES

  27. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION STEAM ENGINE ENERGY FOR THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  28. THE NEED FOR ENERGY • EARLY FACTORIES RELIED ON HORSES, OXENS, AND WATER MILLS • STEAM ENGINE EVOLVED IN RESPONSE TO THE INCREASING NEED FOR POWER

  29. HOW THE STEAM ENGINE WORKS • STEAM FORCED FROM HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE PRODUCES POWER

  30. EFFECT OF STEAM ENGINE • STEAM POWER, USED WHERE EVER COAL EXISTED, INCREASED TEXTILE PRODUCTION • IMPROVED MINING WHICH INCREASED METALS WHICH IN TURN FUELED OTHER INDUSTRIES

  31. THE NEED FOR IRON • FARMING TOOLS, NEW FACTORY MACHINERY, RAILWAYS • SMELTING MAKES IRON MORE PURE, BUT REQUIRES CARBON --THIS MAKES STEEL

  32. THE NEED FOR COAL • CARBON NECESSARY FOR SMELTING IRON • STEAM ENGINES POWERED BY COAL

  33. EFFECT OF IRON AND COAL • BRITIAN PRODUCED MORE IRON THAN ALL OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD COMBINED • COAL POWERED BRITIAN’S ENOROMOUS NAVY

  34. THE NEED FOR BETTER TRANSPORTATION • INCREASED PRODUCTION INCREASED NEED TO TRANSPORT GOODS QUICKLY AND CHEAPLY • PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY USED HORSES, MULES, AND DIRT ROADS

  35. INVENTIONS • STONE AND EVENTUALLY ASPHALT ROADS • CANALS • RAILROAD ERA USHERED IN WITH THE ROCKET IN 1829

  36. EFFECTS OF RAILROADS • EXPANDED RAPIDLY THROUGHOUT BRITIAN • CHEAPER TRANSPORTATION INCREASED PRODUCTION AND PROFITS

  37. ANOTHER EFFECT • RAILWAYS FUELED OTHER INDUSTRIES: COAL, STEAM ENGINE, IRON, STEEL, AND MANY MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

  38. WHY BRITIAN LED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  39. GEOGRAPHY • CILMATE GOOD FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION • PLENTY OF NATURAL RESOURCES SUCH AS IRON AND COAL • SEPARATION FROM THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT KEPT THEM OUT OF THE WARS

  40. GOVERNMENT • INTERNAL TRADE ENCOURAGED • POPULATION ALLOWED TO RELOCATE • HELPED BUILD CANALS AND ROADS

  41. SOCIAL FACTORS • BRITISH SOCIETY LESS RIGID THAN OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

  42. COLONIAL EMPIRE • SUPPLIED RAW MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURED GOODS • PROVIDED MARKET FOR GOODS

  43. ADVANTAGES OF INDUSTRIALIZING FIRST • NO OTHER COUNTRIES COMPETING FOR MANUFACTURED GOODS • MONOPOLY ON TECHNOLOGY

  44. EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  45. EFFECTS IN THE CITY • URBANIZATION--CITY BUILDING AND MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE TO CITIES • CITIES BECAME CROWDED • PEOPLE LIVED IN SLUMS WHERE DISEASE AND DIRTINESS WERE • A PERSON IN THE CITY LIVED TO 17 YEARS OLD

  46. AIR POLLUTION STARTED FROM THE SMOKE FROM FACTORIES. • MANY NEW CITIES DEVELOPED AROUND FACTORIES AND COAL MINES. • CRIME WAS VERY BAD FROM THE CITIES BEING OVERCROWDED.

  47. WORKING CONDITIONS • THE AVERAGE WORKER SPENT 14 HOURS A DAY, 6 DAYS A WEEK. • MANY WORKERS WERE KILLED OR SERIOUSLY INJURED IN ACCIDENTS. • CHILDREN WERE FORCED TO DO HARD LABOR. PG. 262 • WORKERS OVERWORKEDAND UNDERPAID.

  48. SOCIAL CLASSES • THE MIDDLE CLASS GREW--FACTORY OWNERS, SHIPPERS, AND MERCHANTS • WEALTHY LANDOWNERS RESENTED MIDDLE CLASS

  49. POSITIVE EFFECTS • IT CREATED JOBS FOR PEOPLE. • IT CREATED WEALTH FOR COUNTRIES. • IT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY. • IT INCREASED PRODUCTION OF GOODS. • IT BROUGHT HOPE TO PEOPLE.

  50. IT CREATED A BETTER LIFE FOR MANY PEOPLE--BETTER DIETS, BETTER HOUSING AND BETTER CLOTHING AT LOWER PRICES. • UNIONS WERE CREATED TO HELP WORKERS GET BETTER PAY, SHORTER HOURS, AND BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS.