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Business Cycles. What ar e we modelling ?. Focus on explaining fluctuations in real GDP, Y , and the GDP Deflator, P . Framework reminiscent of the supply and demand model. . SUPPLY. Two Aspects of Potential Output.

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what ar e we modelling
What are we modelling?
  • Focus on explaining fluctuations in real GDP, Y, and the GDP Deflator, P.
  • Framework reminiscent of the supply and demand model.
two aspects of potential output
Two Aspects of Potential Output
  • Potential Output is unrelated to the price level but is determined by capital infrastructure, efficiency of labor markets, population, technological know-how.
    • Output increases above potential only if unemployment falls below natural level;
    • if unemployment rises above natural level, output will be below potential.
potential output and labor market
Potential output and labor market.
  • Potential output can be viewed as a level consistent with equilibrium in labor market.
  • When output is above potential output, low unemployment and the search for workers will push up wages.
  • When output is below potential, high unemployment and the surplus of workers will push down wages.
slide6

Potential Output

YP

P

Unemployment above natural rate

Unemployment below natural rate

Upward Pressure on Wages

Downward Pressure on Wages

Y

sticky wages sras
Sticky Wages & SRAS
  • Money wages paid to workers adjust dynamically over time through negotiation.
  • At a given wage, a rise in the price level reduces the cost of labor relative to value of goods produced making hiring labor to produce goods more attractive.
  • At a given wage rate, higher prices induce higher production → in the short run, supply is positively associated with output.
1 shift in potential output
1. Shift in Potential Output
  • Advance in Technology Frontier, PP& E, or expansion in potential labor force (population, demographics).
  • Shifts SRAS w/ potential output.

2. Shifts in SRAS

  • When dollar cost of labor (or prices of energy) shift, changes in costs are passed on into prices.
  • Wages and other cost shifters shift SRAS at a given level potential output.
expenditure c i g nx
Expenditure: C + I + G + NX
  • Wealth Effect – Real value of monetary assets rises as prices fall. This adds to wealth of households stimulating consumption.
  • Competitiveness Effect – Holding exchange rate constant, a lower price level makes domestic exports more attractive and foreign imports less stimulating net exports.

Prices and Spending

prices and liquidity
Prices and Liquidity
  • Depending on monetary policy, there may be a negative relationship between prices and the liquidity that central banks make available.
  • More on that later.
equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium in the competitive market occurs when the price is set at a level (P*) such that the amount that consumers want to buy is equal to the amount that sellers want to sell (Y*).

Excess SupplyIf P were above equilibrium, sellers would want to sell more goods than buyers would want to buy. Competition between sellers would force prices down.

Excess DemandIf P were below equilibrium, customers would want to buy more goods than people would want to sell. Competition between buyers would force prices up.

self correction process
Self Correction Process
  • Business cycles have a natural end. The equilibrium output may be greater than or less than potential output, however, in that case surplus or shortage of workers in labor markets will be putting downward or upward pressure on wages.
  • Pressure on wage costs will shift the supply curve until equilibrium output is equal to potential output.
slide22

AS1

YP

P

AS

AS2

1

W↓

P*

W↑

2

AD

Y

Movement to Long Term Equilibrium

cyclical fluctuations
Cyclical Fluctuations
  • Period-by-period, different important events will impact the economy. We will think of these events as primarily driving the demand side of the economy (shifting the AD curve) or primarily driving the supply side (shifting the supply side).
  • The strength of these will determine the correspondence between movements in output and inflation.
slide25

Output below potential. Downward pressure on wages. Cost of production falls and AS shifts down

P

YP

AS

AS2

1

As costs fall, competitive prices fall, there is a movement along the AD curve.

Wages fall

2

3

P***

AD1

AD2

Y

Y**

slide26

Wages will keep falling until the surplus of labor is absorbed – when prices fall enough that demand reaches potential output

P

AS2

AS4

P**

3

Wages fall

4

AD1

AD2

Y

Y**

YP

consumer confidence and
Consumer Confidence and…

http://hk.nielsen.com/news/20091103.shtml

http://business.asiaone.com/Business/News/Story/A1Story20091229-188708.html

and business confidence
..and Business Confidence…

BNP Parabis Research

and changes in asset prices
..and changes in Asset Prices..

http://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/CQSAdvMacro2005Web.pdf

as ad and expected inflation
AS-AD and Expected inflation
  • Potential GDP generally increases at a consistent rate.
  • On average, aggregate quantity of liquid assets tends to increase faster than potential GDP.
  • Workers wages will tend to rise to match increases in the cost of living.
  • AD does not always rise evenly with GDP.
slide32

Dynamic AS-AD Model: Trend Path

YtP

YPt+1

ASt

ASt+1

P

Demand expansion matches supply expansion

P*t+1

Average Inflation

Pt*

ADt+1

ADt

Y

Yt*

Y*t+1

slide33

Dynamic AS-AD Model: Inflation Acceleration

YtP

YPt+1

ASt+1

ASt

P

Demand expands faster than expected

P*t+1

Expected Inflation

Pt*

Inflation rises more than usual

ADt+1

ADt

Positive Output Gap

Gap

Y

Yt*

Y*t+1

slide34

Dynamic AS-AD Model: Recession, Inflation Deceleration

ASt+1

YPt+1

YtP

ASt

P

Demand expands slower than expected

P*t+1

Expected Inflation

Pt*

Inflation rises less than usual

ADt+1

ADt

Negative Output Gap

Gap

Y

Yt*

Y*t+1

slide36

Supply side shocks cause output and prices to move in opposite directions: Stagflation

AS2

P

AS

2

P**

P*

1

AD1

Y

Y**

Y*

commodity prices increase

Bank of England Report

Commodity Prices increase..
  • In 2007, rising commodity & energy prices lead to global inflation
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to

  • Explain how various events will shift the aggregate supply or demand curves.
  • Construct an aggregate supply and demand model of business cycles and use it to explain equilibrium outcomes.
  • Describe the short-term and long-term dynamics of business cycles.