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Identification principles and the use of forms and codes. Tore Solheim 2010 Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison. Recognition of a person. Proof of identity Subjective Mistakes? Affectionate state Psychological trauma Later doubt

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Identification principles and the use of forms and codes
Identification principles and the use of forms and codes

  • Tore Solheim

  • 2010

  • Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison


Recognition of a person
Recognition of a person

  • Proof of identity

  • Subjective

  • Mistakes?

    • Affectionate state

    • Psychological trauma

    • Later doubt

  • Use with outmost caution


Person identification
Person identification

  • Comparison of a.m. with p.m. information

  • Objective

  • By neutral experts

  • Must never be wrong

  • Save relatives


Identification
Identification

  • Who is responsible?

    • Police

    • Coroner/medical examiner

    • Judge

    • ID-commission (team)

  • How important?

    • Different countries

      • Correct body for burial?

      • Many unidentified bodies?

      • Recognition easy and cheap


Work in respect of the dead and their families
Work in respect of the dead and their families

  • Respect of the individual after death

    • Ethics of identification

    • Must use time and effort

  • Only the police have sufficient resources

  • Only the police have international co-operation

    • Interpol

      • Working committee

      • Forms with computer program (DVI-system)

      • Guide

      • Recommendation for international co-operation


Odontologic comparison
Odontologic comparison

  • Comparison of odontologic data

  • Radiographic comparison

  • Photographic comparison

  • Superimposition techniques

  • Facial reconstruction techniques

  • Final Identificationmust be a result of a compete evaluation of all evidence

  • Team work


Odontologic comparison report
Odontologic comparison report

  • Conclusions

    • Odontologic identity established

    • Odontologic identity probable

    • Odontologic identity possible

    • Odontologic identity excluded

  • Subjective assessment

    • No guide

    • Statistical evidence


Statistical considerations
Statistical considerations

  • Keiser-Nielsen

    • Od.id. established

      • At least 12 concordant uncharacteristic features

    • Calculation of possibilities

      • Possibilities are not the same as probabilities

        • Interrelation of fillings

  • Skinner want to reduce the population

    • The dead person can be anyone

  • Only the police can guarantee the missing person list (population)

  • A person not reported missing


Wrong identification
Wrong identification?

  • Identification by elimination

  • What is the possibility of a wrong identification

  • DNA comparisons

    • <1/1000 000

  • Odontologic comparison?

  • Identity established???


How frequent occurs another person with the same features
How frequent occurs another person with the same features?

  • Identityestablished

  • < 1/10 000

  • Identity probable

  • < 1//100

  • Identitypossible

  • >1/100

  • Epidemiologic data??


Forms
Forms

  • Forensic examinations -> written report

    • Also identification

  • A form

    • Saves time

    • Not forget anything

      • Help for inexperienced

      • All fields should be filled in

  • National forms

    • Often too simple

    • US after Sept 11. form from 2 to 40 pages

      • Prepared for big disasters


The interpol form
The Interpol form

  • International co-operation

  • Revised several times

  • Comprises all 3 fields of Identification

  • 2 out of 15 pages for forensic odontology

  • Used in all Nordic countries

  • Designed for electronic use

    • Cross off boxes

    • DVI system computer program made in Denmark

    • Print the forms

    • Comparison sheet


The odontologic form
The odontologic form

  • A.M and P.M forms

  • F1 administrative page

  • F2 odontologic description

  • A legal report

    • Not a working document

  • Registrations should be complete

  • The report should stand alone

    • All important background information

    • Main police findings

    • Main forensic medical findings

  • All fields should be filled in


The comparison form
The comparison form

  • Formulation of conclusion

  • Reason for the conclusion

    • Explain non-concordant details

    • Write which details the conclusion is based upon

    • Which details (filling) and which tooth

      • 4 amalgam fillings (17,27,36,35)

  • Signature of two dentists