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Chapter 2: Alkanes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 2: Alkanes. Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen. Alkanes are carbon compounds that contain only single bonds. The simplest alkanes are hydrocarbons – compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are used mainly as fuels, solvents and lubricants:. Hydrocarbons.

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Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen

  • Alkanes are carbon compounds that contain only single bonds.
  • The simplest alkanes are hydrocarbons – compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
  • Hydrocarbons are used mainly as fuels, solvents and lubricants:
slide12

Structural Isomers

How many structural isomers – compounds with the same chemical formula but different connectivity – are there with the formula C7H16?

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Structural Isomers

How many structural isomers – compounds with the same chemical formula but different connectivity – are there with the formula C7H16?

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Structural Isomers of C7H16

Cycloheptane contains two fewer hydrogens than heptane. They are not structural isomers.

slide19

Naming Cycloalkanes

Unlike "floppy" chains, rings have an additional consideration for multiple substitutions:

The above compounds are not structural isomers. Their connectivity is identical. They are stereoisomers– compounds that differ in how substituents are arranged in space

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3-Dimensional Structure

Molecules that differ by only rotations around single bonds are conformational Isomers.

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3-Dimensional Structure

How can these molecular shapes arise from bonding between the available orbitals?