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Fitness Components and Fitness Testing

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  1. Fitness Components and Fitness Testing Week 1 Week 1

  2. Today’s Session • I’m healthy but am I fit? • Fitness, exercise and health. • Consideration of the problems of defining health and fitness. • Dimensions of fitness. Week 1

  3. Exam Questions • List two of the main fitness dimensions required by the long jumper, and briefly describe a suitable test for either dimension. (2 marks) • Why would an abdominal curl bleep test not be a suitable test to measure a long jumper’s fitness? (2 marks) Week 1

  4. Fitness is the ability to cope effectively with the stress of everyday life. Don’t confuse Fitness and health. To be healthy means to be in a state of well-being and free from disease. Fitness and Health Week 1

  5. Components of Fitness Aerobic Capacity Speed Flexibility Reaction Time Strength Co-ordination Balance Body Composition Power Agility Week 1

  6. Speed Power Balance Reaction time Coordination Agility Cardio-respiratory endurance (stamina) or (aerobic capacity) Muscle endurance Strength Flexibility Body composition Health related components Skill related components Week 1

  7. Cardio-respiratory Endurance.(Aerobic Capacity or Stamina) • Cardio-respiratory endurance is the ability of an athlete to take in and use oxygen over a long period of time. • It allows us to participate in prolonged periods of sub maximal activities such as swimming, running, cycling and rowing. Week 1

  8. Cardio-respiratory Endurance Depends on Three Factors • Effective external respiration. • Effective oxygen transport from the lungs to the cells (internal respiration). • Effective use of oxygen within the cells. • Therefore your cardio-respiratoryendurance depends on the efficiency of your cardiac, respiratory and vascular systems. (A lot of which is genetically determined). Week 1

  9. VO2 (Max) • Aerobic capacity is referred to as VO2 (max). • VO2 (max) – the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed and used by the body per unit of time. It is usually expressed as millilitres per kilogram of body weight. • This is important learn this definition. Week 1

  10. Calculation of VO2 (Max) • Most accurate – in lab conditions using a Douglas bag (see speaker notes). • Can you think any limitations for us in this testing method? • For the reasons you mentioned we cannot perform this type of test. This is an alternative. • We will be using the multi stage fitness test to calculate our VO2 (Max). • Can you think of any limitations with this test? Week 1

  11. Improving Levels of Cardio-respiratory Endurance • The main methods of improving cardio-respiratory endurance are… • Continuous training. • Fartlek. • Interval training. Week 1

  12. Body Composition • Body mass is made up of lean body mass plus body fat. • Males on average carry 12-15% body fat. • Women on average carry 18-20% body fat. • Additional fat levels put strain on the cardiovascular system. Week 1

  13. Flexibility • This is the ability to move body parts around a joint. • It depends on the amount of stretch allowed by the ligaments, joints, tendons and muscles. • Flexibility has only recently been considered as an important of physical fitness for all athletes. • Increasing your flexibility improves your performance and helps to avoid unnecessary injury. Week 1

  14. Maximum Strength • This is the greatest force the neuromuscular system is capable of exerting in a single maximum voluntary contraction (in simple terms our 1rep max). • Most people do not need to work on improving their maximum strength as they rarely need to exert maximum strength in everyday life. Week 1

  15. Factors That Affect Maximum Strength • Muscle cross-section, the greater the size of the muscle the greater the force it can produce. • Fibre type, fast twitch fibres can produce a greater force than slow twitch fibres. • Muscle shape, affects maximum strength. Multipennate provides more strength than fusiform. Week 1

  16. Muscular Endurance (Strength Endurance) • This is the ability of the muscle to withstand fatigue. • This is the most appropriate strength to health-related fitness. • This is because we complete repetitive strength tasks in everyday life – digging, carrying the shopping home. Week 1

  17. POWER • The ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome resistance with a high speed of contraction is called elastic strength or power. • Be aware that power can be termed as elastic strength, dynamic strength or power. • Power is used in nearly all sport. Week 1

  18. Speed • Speed is basically how fast you can move part or the whole of your body. • It is measured in meters per second. • Speed is an important factor in all explosive sports and activities that require sudden changes in direction. Week 1

  19. Speed and Reaction Time • The time taken to complete a task can be split into two parts. • Reaction time (RT) – the time to initiate a response to a specific stimulus. In humans this is usually about 0.2 seconds. • Movement time (MT) – the time taken from the start of movement until it finishes. Week 1

  20. Speed and Reaction Time Speed of a 100 meter race RT (reaction time) MT (movement time) Response time measured Initiate movement off the blocks Stimulus ‘Go’ Finish Week 1

  21. The Importance of Reaction Time • The total speed of an athlete is the sum of the reaction time and the movement time. • Reaction time is 1% of the total race time in a 100 meter race. • This can mean the difference between coming first and last. • There are sports that reaction time become less important – these are usually sports that rely on closed skills. Week 1

  22. Agility • Agility is the combination of speed and coordination. • It allows you to efficiently change direction and body position at speed. • Take the example of the goal keeper who needs to have fast reactions and to be very agile. Week 1

  23. Balance • Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium – think of the centre of mass. • There are two types of balance – static and dynamic balance. • Static – balance that is held still (a head stand). • Dynamic – athletes need to retain balance as they move. • Balance can be measured using a balance board. Week 1

  24. What Components of Fitness? Week 1

  25. Exam Questions Answers • List two of the main fitness dimensions required by the long jumper, and briefly describe a suitable test for either dimension. (2 marks) • 1 Power/flexibility/strength/agility/speed; any 2 for (1 mark) • Suitable test described and linked to component– eg; • 2 Sergeant/broad jump/Wingate anaerobic cycle test for power; • 3 Sit and reach for flexibility; • 4 Dynamometer/single repetition max for strength; • 5 Illinois agility run for agility; • 6 30 metre sprint for speed/power; • 7 Dynamic balance test – beam walk. Week 1

  26. Exam Questions Answers • Why would an abdominal curl bleep test not be a suitable test to measure a long jumper’s fitness? (2 marks) • Test measures local muscular endurance; local muscular endurance not required for long jump. (2 marks) Week 1

  27. Exam Questions Answers • Many people participate in soccer to maintain their health and to improve their fitness. Give an appropriate definition for each of these terms. • 1 Health - free from mental and physical disease; • 2 Fitness - the ability to the meet the demands of their environment or lifestyle / soccer. Week 1

  28. Exam Questions Training will improve both the level of fitness and the level of skill of a games player. The improvement in fitness that result from training are often measurable. • Cardio-respiratory endurance (stamina) is considered to be an important component of fitness of games players. • What do you understand by the term cardio-respiratory endurance, and why should it be considered an important component of the fitness of games player? (2 Marks) • Describe a suitable test for measuring cardio-respiratory endurance. (4 marks) (b) Cardio-respiratory endurance training will cause changes to the structure and functioning of the body that helps to improve performance. Describe these changes in terms of: • The heart • The lungs Week 1

  29. Exam Questions Answers Training will improve both the level of fitness and the level of skill of a games player. The improvement in fitness that result from training are often measurable. • Cardio-respiratory endurance (stamina) is considered to be an important component of fitness of games players. • What do you understand by the term cardio-respiratory endurance, and why should it be considered an important component of the fitness of games player? (2 Marks) • Describe a suitable test for measuring cardio-respiratory endurance. (4 marks) (b) Cardio-respiratory endurance training will cause changes to the structure and functioning of the body that helps to improve performance. Describe these changes in terms of: • The heart • The lungs Week 1