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Slavery in the Spanish Colonies (cont'd). Spain declared Florida a haven for runaway slaves from the British colonies and offered land to those who would help defend the colony. Slavery in French Louisiana. Natchez Rebellion 1629

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slavery in the spanish colonies cont d
Slavery in the Spanish Colonies (cont'd)
  • Spain declared Florida a haven for runaway slaves from the British colonies and offered land to those who would help defend the colony.
slavery in french louisiana
Slavery in French Louisiana
  • Natchez Rebellion 1629
    • The Natchez Indians and the slaves of Louisiana joined together in an armed uprising killing 10% of the colonial population, but were crushed
  • French Louisiana became a society with slaves.
  • Slaves made up only about 1/3 of population
slavery in french louisiana cont d
Slavery in French Louisiana (cont'd)
  • Louisiana did not become an important North American slave society until the end of the eighteenth century.
slavery in the north
Slavery in the North
  • Slavery was legal and part of the labor system in some northern commercial farming areas but only made up ten percent of the rural population in these regions.
  • In port cities, slavery was common.
slavery in the north cont d
Slavery in the North (cont'd)
  • By 1750, the slave and free African populations made up 15 to 20% of the residents of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.
  • Antislavery sentiment first arose among the Quakers of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
the daily lives of slaves
The Daily Lives of Slaves
  • Africans were majority of plantation labor force
    • As agricultural peoples, Africans were used to rural routines and most slaves worked in the fields.
    • Slaves were supplied rude clothes and hand-me-downs from the master’s family.
  • Small plantations / farms
    • Africans worked along side masters
the daily lives of slaves cont d
The Daily Lives of Slaves (cont'd)
  • Large plantations
    • Population necessary for the development of an African American culture.
families and communities
Families and Communities
  • In the development of African American community and culture, the family was the most important institution.
  • Families were often separated by sale or bequest.
  • Slaves created family structures developing marriage customs, naming practices, and a system of kinship.
families and communities cont d
Families and Communities (cont'd)
  • Fictive kinship was used by slaves to humanize the world of slavery.
african american culture
African American Culture
  • Eighteenth century: formative period of African American community
  • Development of sustaining spiritually
    • dance, music, religion, and oral tradition.
  • Great Awakening conversions
  • Death and burial important religious practices
  • Foundations of music and dance
african american culture cont d
African American Culture (cont'd)
  • Gullah and Geechee languages
the africanization of the south
The Africanization of the South
  • Acculturation occurred in two directions—English influenced Africans and Africans influenced English.
the africanization of the south cont d
The Africanization of the South (cont'd)
  • Africanization was evident in:
    • cooking: barbecue, fried chicken, black-eyed peas, and collard greens
    • material culture: basket weaving, wood carving, and architecture
    • language: goober, okay, tote, buddy
    • music and dance: banjo
  • Even the Southern “drawl” may show African influence.
violence and resistance
Violence and Resistance
  • Slave system based on force and violence
  • Africans resisted by:
    • Refusing to cooperate and malingering; mistreating tools and animals; Running away
  • Revolting (NYC, 1721; Stono, 1739)
    • Fear of uprisings but slaves in North America rarely revolted
      • Conditions for a successful revolt were not present
violence and resistance cont d
Violence and Resistance (cont'd)
  • Slaves had also developed culture and communities and did not want to risk losing these things.
fugitive slaves flee through the swamps in thomas moran s slave hunt dismal swamp virginia 1862
Fugitive slaves flee through the swamps in Thomas Moran’s Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia (1862).
slavery and the economics of empire1
Slavery and the Economics of Empire
  • The slave trade was the foundation of the British economy.
  • Created a large colonial market for exports that stimulated manufacturing
  • Generated huge profits that served as a source of investments
  • Supplied raw cotton to fuel British industrialization
the politics of mercantilism
The Politics of Mercantilism
  • Mercantilism
    • First advanced in Louis XIV’s France, later adopted in Britain
    • Colonies existed to benefit the mother country
    • The economy should be controlled by the state
    • The economy was a “zero-sum” game where profits for one country meant losses for another.
the politics of mercantilism cont d
The Politics of Mercantilism (cont'd)
  • Competition between states was to hoard the fixed amount of wealth that existed in the world.
british colonial regulation
British Colonial Regulation
  • State trading monopolies
  • 1651–1696: Navigation Acts
    • legal and institutional structure of Britain’s colonial system.
    • “Enumerated Articles” such as sugar could only be sent to Britain.
  • Wool, Hat, and Iron Acts
  • Great Britain did not allow colonial tariffs, banking, or local coinage.
british colonial regulation cont d
British Colonial Regulation (cont'd)
  • The increase in colonial trade led Britain to pursue a policy of “salutary neglect.”
wars for empire
Wars for Empire
  • The English, French, and Spanish struggled for control over North America and the Caribbean in a series of wars that had their European counterparts.
  • Wars in the southern region of the colonies focused on slavery.
  • Wars in the northern region were generally focused on the control of the Indian trade.
wars for empire cont d
Wars for Empire (cont'd)
  • Down to 1744, the wars were a stalemate, with no nation winning the upper hand in the Americas.
the colonial economy
The Colonial Economy
  • Despite wars, the colonial economy grew rapidly.
  • The New England shipbuilding was stimulated by trade.
  • Benefits for northern port cities
  • Participation in the slave trade to the South and West Indies
the colonial economy cont d
The Colonial Economy (cont'd)
  • Trading foodstuffs for sugar in foreign colonies
  • Between the 1730s and 1770s, the commercial economies of the North and South were becoming integrated as well as part of the British Atlantic economy.
the social structure of the slave colonies
The Social Structure of the Slave Colonies
  • Slavery produced a highly stratified class society.
    • Elite planters held more than half of the land and sixty percent of the wealth.
    • Small planters and farmers made up half of the adult white male population.
      • Many kept one to four slaves.
the social structure of the slave colonies cont d
The Social Structure of the Slave Colonies (cont'd)
  • Slavery produced a highly stratified class society.
    • Throughout the plantation region, landless men constituted about forty percent of the population.
      • Work included renting land, tenant farming, hiring out as overseers, or becoming indentured servants.
white skin privilege
White Skin Privilege
  • Skin color determined status.
  • Legal and other racial distinctions were constant reminders of the freedom of white colonists and the debasement of all African Americans, free or slave.
white skin privilege cont d
White Skin Privilege (cont'd)
  • Mixed-ancestry (mulattoes)
    • Majority of mulattoes were slaves.
    • Masters often fathered unacknowledged children with female slaves—perhaps Jefferson with Sally Hemings.
  • Racism created contempt between African Americans and colonists.
slavery and empire 1441 1770
Slavery and Empire, 1441-1770
  • Southern planters, Northern merchants and British traders were all equally involved in slavery.
  • Slavery permeated colonial societies and made colonies profitable to the mother countries.
  • Mercantilism supported and reinforced slavery as profits flowed back to England.