Ancient Greek Architecture. The Golden Age of Athens.
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After the Persian invasion in 480 BCE, Athenians wanted to keep the Acropolis in ruin to show the steep price of war.
However, Pericles convinced them to rebuild it. He said they would decorate it with elaborate architecture and sculpture to become a fitting memorial for not just the war but specifically to the goddess Athena and her role in protecting the Athenian people.
It took 15 years to build the Parthenon, it was completed in 432 BCE. Within the Parthenon there is a incredible monumental entry way, called Propylaia. It is monumental in its design and beauty. Two temples were also completed later, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike.
Phidias was in charge of the sculptural portion of the new buildings on the Acropolis, and he may have been responsible for influencing the architectural project as well.
The Parthenon would be the centerpiece of the Acropolis, with the architects being Ictinus, Callicrates and Mnesicles.
The Propylaia was the monumental entry way leading up to the Acropolis from below. When one of the architects, Mnesicles was given the project of designing the Propylaia he decided to create five gates, which was a architectural tour of porches and colonnades of Doric columns.
A key area of the Parthenon was the Agora; which was an open place used as a market and place to congregate. It was the place where they practiced their politics. It was here that the the love for beauty and arts was really cultivated as well as the strive for intellectual greatness.
Sculptures were in the three areas of the Parthenon, in pediments at each end of the building, on the metopes (square panels between the beam ends under the roof) and on the frieze which runs across the outer wall.