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ROCKS under the microscope. The ROCKS you need to know granite diorite gabbro dolerite basalt shelly limestone sandstone arkose greywacke marble schist. biotite.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
The ROCKS you need to know
  • granite
  • diorite
  • gabbro
  • dolerite
  • basalt
  • shelly limestone
  • sandstone
  • arkose
  • greywacke
  • marble
  • schist
slide3

biotite

PPLXPLGraniteNote how light and clear it is under PPL and grey/white/black under XPL; main minerals – feldspars (often microcline), quartz, biotite and muscovite

biotite

muscovite

plagioclase

plagioclase

muscovite

quartz

quartz

slide4

amphibole

amphibole

biotite

biotite

plagioclase

plagioclase

PPLXPLDioriteDarker under PPL than granite with more coloured minerals; much plagioclase and amphibole/biotite, only small amount of quartz

slide5

pyroxene

pyroxene

PPL XPLGabbroCoarse-grained; darker under PPL and brightly coloured under XPL; main minerals – plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine

plagioclase

plagioclase

olivine

olivine

olivine

slide6

PPL XPLDoleriteMedium-grained;darker under PPL and brightly coloured under XPL; main minerals – plagioclase (often in form of laths), pyroxene (intergrown through other crystals) and olivine

plagioclase

plagioclase

pyroxene

pyroxene

slide7

fine groundmass of

plagioclase & iron minerals

PPL XPLBasaltFine-grained;darker under PPL and brightly coloured under XPL; main minerals – plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine; often porphyritic (large well-formed crystals in fine groundmass)

pyroxene

pyroxene

slide8

PPL XPLShelly limestoneDark under PPL and dark pearly shades under XPL; main mineral – calcite; note the fossils.

calcite

calcite

slide9

PPL XPLSandstoneRounded quartz fragments; light under PPL and grey/white/black under XPL; main mineral – quartz

quartz

quartz

slide10

PPL XPLArkoseMore angular quartz and feldspar fragments; light under PPL and grey/white/black under XPL; main minerals – quartz and microcline

microcline

microcline

quartz

quartz

slide11

muddy

matrix

muddy

matrix

PPL XPLGreywackeFragments variable in shape, size and type; light under PPL and grey/white/black under XPL; main mineral – quartz but with rock fragments, feldspar and minor micas; look out for the muddy matrix!

quartz

quartz

rock

fragment

rock

fragment

slide12

PPL XPLMarbleCrystalline with perfect cleavages evident;light under PPL and pearly shades under XPL; main mineral – calcite.

calcite

calcite

slide13

PPL XPLSchistMinerals showing foliation; light under PPL and brightly coloured under XPL; mainminerals – muscovite, biotite, garnet, quartz and feldspar

muscovite

muscovite

garnet

garnet

quartz

quartz