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McFatter Technical Center Emergency Medical Technician - Basic. Health Science Core Chapter 7 and 11. Chapter 7 The Safe Workplace and Lifting/Moving Patients. Proper Body Mechanics. Body Mechanics - Efficient and safe use of the body during activity Prevent injury

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health science core chapter 7 and 11

McFatter Technical Center

Emergency Medical Technician - Basic

Health Science CoreChapter 7 and 11

Revised: August 2007

proper body mechanics
Proper Body Mechanics
  • Body Mechanics - Efficient and safe use of the body during activity
    • Prevent injury
    • Correct problems related to posture and lifting
    • Most common injury for loss of time from the job is back injury

Revised: August 2007

anatomy of the back
Anatomy of the Back
  • Important to maintain proper alignment so the weight is evenly distributed throughout the vertebrae and discs
  • 33 total vertebrae
  • Discs are cartilage that absorb shock to the spine
  • Several muscles support the spine and need to be kept strong and flexible

Revised: August 2007

back tips
Back tips
  • Maintain broad base support with your feet
  • Always bend your knees, keep back straight, and use leg muscles to lift
  • Keep the load close to your body

Revised: August 2007

back tips1
Back tips
  • Use body weight to push and pull an object
  • Do not twist and turn. Try to turn your entire body
  • Test the weight before attempting to lift it.

Revised: August 2007

needle sticks
Needle Sticks

Reduce needle sticks:

  • Sharp objects must always be disposed in a puncture resistant container after use
  • Utilize needles that lock the needle in the hub

Revised: August 2007

patient moving
Patient Moving
  • Should get assistance with moving
  • Tell the patient what will happen
  • Prepare equipment that you are moving the patient to:
    • Gurney
    • Stretcher
    • Wheelchair
    • Backboard
    • Stair chair

Revised: August 2007

patient moving1
Patient moving
  • Utilize slide board when available
  • Lock equipment in place
    • Ex. Gurney wheels
    • Ex. Wheelchair wheels
  • Provide a count for everyone to begin assisting with the move
  • Patient should be instructed on how to position limbs.
    • Ex. Arms crossed

Revised: August 2007

patient moving2
Patient Moving
  • If side rails are on the equipment, make sure they are always placed up
  • Moving stretchers into the up position, make sure the legs lock
  • Moving stretchers out of rescue unit, make sure the carriage legs drop and lock before moving the upper wheels off of the rescue floor
  • Moving stretchers on uneven terrain, support at the head and foot of the stretcher or use 4 rescuers on each corner.

Revised: August 2007

patient moving power lift
Patient MovingPower lift
  • Get as close to the object as you can.
  • Spread your legs shoulder width apart.
  • Bend your knees and squat down.
  • Lock your back into an upright position and tighten abdominal muscles.
  • When lifting with other students, one person should be coordinating the lift.
  • Lift up by using your legs.
  • Keeping your back locked upright position while completing the lifting motion.

Revised: August 2007

lifting guidelines
Lifting Guidelines
  • Must communicate the plan with everyone on the team before lifting the patient
  • Estimate weight of patient before lifting and make sure you can safely lift this weight
  • Patients over 250lbs should be lifted with 4 or more rescuers
  • Know the weight limitations of your equipment

Revised: August 2007

lifting patients down stairs
Lifting Patients Down Stairs
  • Secure patient to stair chair, backboard, or other suitable equipment
  • Rescuers take their places around the patient
  • Additional rescuer provides spotting on the stairs, opens doors, and assists as needed

Revised: August 2007

emergency moves
Emergency Moves

Moving a patient before initial assessment and care are provided when there is some potential danger. Example:

  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Hazardous material incident

Revised: August 2007

non urgent moves
Non-urgent Moves

Scene and patient is stable. The rescue crew can plan how to move the patient.

Revised: August 2007

moving geriatrics
Moving Geriatrics

Rescuers should apply additional care to geriatric patients

  • Brittle bones
  • Rigidity and spinal curvatures
  • Fear of hospitals

Revised: August 2007

patients who smoke
Patients who Smoke
  • Never allow to smoke near oxygen equipment
    • Make cause explosion
  • Never allow to smoke in bed because they could fall asleep
  • Keep lighters and matches away from children or confused patients

Revised: August 2007

hazardous work environments
Hazardous Work Environments
  • Personal safety is number one
  • Utilize proper forms of protection
  • Alert supervisors and other workers of possible hazards in work area
  • Remove from use any equipment that is hazardous and send to appropriate person for repair

Revised: August 2007

electrical shock prevention
Electrical Shock Prevention
  • Do not use any equipment until you have been properly instructed
  • Inspect electrical cord (do not use if damaged or frayed)
  • Do not use equipment cords that have the one of the three prongs removed
  • Do not use damaged or malfunctioning equipment
  • Avoid using electrical equipment on wet surfaces

Revised: August 2007

chemical injury prevention
Acid and alkaline chemicals can cause direct skin contact burns or inhalation injury from fumes

Never combine acid chemicals with alkaline chemicals

Chemical Injury Prevention

Acid black lesion

Alkaline white lesion

Revised: August 2007

chemical injury prevention1
Chemical Injury Prevention
  • Always wear gloves when handling chemicals.
  • Read labels of containers that you are using
  • Do not use solutions that are missing labels or unreadable
  • Use chemicals in a well-ventilated area
  • Exposed to chemicals, immediately flush with water

Revised: August 2007

material safety data sheet
Material Safety Data Sheet

Document that identifies chemicals used in a specific department with details regarding the chemical

1. Component data

2. Fire and Explosion data

3. Health hazard data

Revised: August 2007

material safety data sheet1
Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Other information:
    • Employee protection
    • Reactivity data
    • Storage precautions
    • Physical data
    • Environmental protection

Revised: August 2007

hazard communication label
Hazard Communication Label

Locate outside the building

Revised: August 2007

fire safety
Fire Safety

RACE

  • Rescue patient
  • Activate the alarm
  • Contain the fire
  • Extinguish the fire

Revised: August 2007

fire safety1
Fire Safety
  • Remain calm and do not panic
  • Turn off oxygen
  • Close doors and windows to contain and slow spread
  • Use fire fighting equipment

Revised: August 2007

fire safety2
Fire Safety

Extinguishers look at label and make sure the extinguisher classification is appropriate for the fire

Revised: August 2007

fire safety3
Fire Safety

PASS

  • Pull pin
  • Aim handle
  • Squeeze handle
  • Sweep back and forth at the base of the fire

Revised: August 2007

beds and gurneys
Beds and Gurneys
  • Gurney is a stretcher which is used for transporting patients
  • Beds:
    • Stryker frame or circular double frame bed – rotating along patient axis allowing you to turn the patient over without his/her assistance.
    • Roto-Rest bed – mattress alternated pressure to prevent skin breakdown

Revised: August 2007

ambulation equipment
Ambulation Equipment
  • Wheelchair – wheel for transporting patients
  • Crutches – for orthopedic injuries that all the patient independent movement
  • Canes – assist patient with balance and reduce falling
  • Walkers – allow patient to move with more support than a cane

Revised: August 2007

respiratory devices
Respiratory Devices

Oxygen deliver devices

  • Nasal cannula – delivers low percentage of oxygen
  • Oxygen mask – delivers higher percentage of oxygen
  • Nebulizer – delivers fine mist of medication
  • Respirator or ventilator – machine that mechanically breathes for the patient

Revised: August 2007

intravenous therapy
Intravenous Therapy
  • Fluids of sterile water mixed with dextrose or electrolytes
  • Hospitals use infusion pumps to deliver intravenous fluids at accurate amounts
  • Do not adjust settings or turn off the pump

Revised: August 2007

excretory equipment
Excretory Equipment
  • Bedside commode – portable toilet usually kept by the patient’s bedside
  • Indwelling catheter or folley catheter – catheter inserted into the urinary bladder
  • Suctioning device – used to prevent inhaling solids or liquids or keeping them from choking on secretions

Revised: August 2007

crash cart
Crash Cart

Contain defibrillator, oxygen tank, suction machine, medications, intravenous solutions, advance airway equipment, and other equipment for cardiopulmonary arrest

Revised: August 2007

patient care unit
Patient Care Unit
  • Bed
  • Over-bed light
  • Table
  • Personal storage
  • Call light and intercom system that allows the patient to contact for assistance
  • Television

Revised: August 2007

rescue apparatus
Rescue Apparatus
  • Method to transport patient to the hospital and carry necessary equipment
  • Configurations are personal preference. Each agency designs the vehicle based on needs. Some carry a lot of equipment and therefore need a bigger vehicle

Revised: August 2007

other transporting vehicles
Other Transporting Vehicles
  • Helicopters – used for long transports or transports that would be delayed by traffic
  • Pumpers – designed to fit a stretcher and carry full ambulance equipment
  • Fix wing aircraft – used for long distance transportation

Revised: August 2007

stretcher
Stretcher

Revised: August 2007

references
References
  • Pollak, Andrew N. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. 9th ed. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.
  • Stevens, Kay, and Garber, Debra. Introduction to Clinical Allied Healthcare. 2nd ed. Clifton Park, New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1996.

Revised: August 2007