Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations Trading Creativity
Minoans (2000-1400 BC) Ancient Crete • Geographically small
Minoans (2000-1400 BC) • Possible origin of people on Crete: • Phoenicia (Byblos) • The Sea People • Problem: Insufficient Food • No major rivers • Infertile soil • Solution: Trade
Minoan Trade • What is needed to conduct trade? • Needed for trade: • Goods to sell • Ships to transport the goods • Contacts in the foreign ports (sales) • Storage facilities • Accounting system (numbers)
Minoan Trade Goods to sell • Olive oil • Wine • Saffron (from crocus plants) • Metals (especially copper from Cyprus) • Grains (especially from Egypt) Copper ingot
Minoan Pottery Why was the pottery decorated?
Minoan Art Art just for Art’s sake? Or maybe for profit?
Ships Transport Goods Look at the pottery and the wall paintings to see the types of ships Replica
Minoan Ships Putting together pictures and accounts allows a model to be built.
Examples of Ships from Egypt Nile sail boat Fishing from a papyrus boat Funeral boat, pyramid at Giza Model funeral boat
Minoans and Other Seafaring People Pentekonter Single-banked ship with a crew of 50 rowers (25 a side) Bireme Two tiers of rowers
Minoans and Other Seafaring People Trireme Three tiers of rowers Guided missile–warfare
Minoans and Other Seafaring People Present day attempt to build a model. Notice the shallow depth of the ship. How would this kind of a ship perform outside of the Mediterranean Sea, i.e., in an ocean?
Lehi Nephi Trail Jerusalem
Contacts in Foreign Ports Minoan trade dominated the Aegean • Minoan script discovered on tablets with the (Linear A) • in these places or the places were named as destinations
Minoan Destruction Minoan society mysteriously ceased to exist • Was it because of the explosion of Thera/Santorini? Thera/Santorini Island
Minoan Destruction Effects of the explosion of Thera • Pumice on Thera • Over 40 feet thick • Sulfur dioxide • Poisonous gas over Eastern Mediterranean • Tsunami • 60 feet deep; lasted several hours in Crete • Cold weather • Lasted more than a year over the entire world • Famine resulted of combined effects
Minoan Destruction • Effects around the Mediterranean basin • Possible effects in Egypt? • Plagues
Accounting: Greek Numbers Use letters for numbers with a ' to signify that it is a number. Example:11 = ια' Example:275 = σοε' Example:2339 = 'βτλθ Numbers larger than 999 use the letters but move the ' to front.
Greek Numbers Therefore, numbers up to 9999 were represented with the letters and ' marks. Numbers larger than 9999 used M (myriad) plus letters as before. Example: 11339='Mατλθ Numbers over 19999 used a letter superscript above the M. Example: 21339='Mατλθ β
Greek Numbers As you can see, Greek numbers (and all other ancient number systems) were challenging, especially for large numbers. ΒζδΩпΞλαЛ
Minoans = Atlantis Some have speculated that the Minoans were actually the ancient Island of Atlantis
Minoans = Atlantis • Why does the story put Atlantis • beyond the gates of Hercules? Factor of 10 problem Mediterranean Basin
Mycenaeans 1400-1000 BC • Greek mainlanders • Moved into the vacuum created by the disappearance of Minoans • May have conquered the remaining Minoans • Tale of Theseus, Ariadne, and the minotaur • Domination of Minoans overthrown Minotaur = minos and taurus
Mycenaeans • Built strong fortress cities on the Greek mainland and on islands and on the Turkey coast • Capital of strongest king = Mycenaea • King = Agamemnon • Story of the Mycenaeans told in the Illiad
Mycenaeans • Mycenaeans • Religion (many gods) • War-like society • Language • Traits of heroes • Sacrifice for country • Bravery • Honor Minoans Love of Peace Beauty Leisure
Thank You Trade Enhances Creativity