The Reign of King John Balliol. The coronation of John Balliol. On 17 November 1292 Edward I made his judgement in favour of John Balliol.
‘He was king not by unquestioned right, but by judgement of a court and the events leading up to that judgement made him both a vassal king and a factional king.’
The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Brown, M., Edinburgh University Press, 2004.
On 26 December 1292 he paid homage to Edward for the second time, saying: 'Lord Edward, lord superior of the realm of Scotland, I, John Balliol, King of Scots, become your liegeman for the whole realm of Scotland.'The issue of overlordship
He ordered the wording of the Royal Seal of Scotland to be changed.
John was made to accept Master Thomas of Hunsingore, a Yorkshire man, as his new chancellor.
The office of treasurer was introduced; this title had never been used in Scotland before. This was clear imitation of English practiceThe new Scottish government
Edward publicly forced John to back down. On 2 January 1292 John issued letters which freed Edward from all obligations and promises which the English king had entered into with the Guardians.
This meant that the Treaty of Birgham, and all other guarantees of Scottish independence, were null and void.How did King John Balliol react to Scottish decisions being overturned?
© The Scottish Wars of Independence, 1286–1328 by Andy McPhee, reproduced by permission of Hodder Education