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Agenda

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  1. Agenda • Introduction 12:00 • Ozone Fan/Filter Assembly 12:15 • Monitoring Charge on Photoconductor 12:30 • LED Exposure System 12:45 • Paper Delivery System 1:00 • High Visibility Warning Signs 1:15 • Camera System 1:30 • Transfer Roller Speed Measurement 1:45 • Labview Control Interface 2:00 • Additional Issues 2:15

  2. Detailed Design ReviewP09503 – Electrophotographic Development and Transfer Station Friday, October 31, 2008 12:00PM-3:00PM 76-A120

  3. Team Members

  4. Introduction to Electrophotography • Electrophotography is base technology used in modern day copy printers • Six Step Process • Charging • Exposure • Development • Transfer • Fusing • Cleaning • EDTS only includes first four

  5. Project Introduction • EDTS will contribute to understanding of current EP technology • Manipulation of input parameters • Objective is to take existing EDTS and • Make it functional • Improve Usability • Automate Control of Machine • Additional Performance Improvements

  6. Project Deliverables • 1 – An inventory and status of current sub-systems, including needed support systems. • 2 – A working EDTS. • 3 – Demonstrably improved device safety. • 4 – An improved user interface (includes control and display functions) • 5 – Device documented for use, maintenance and upgrade of the device (User & Lab Technician Manual) • 6 – Demonstrably Improved Sensing and Control Subsystem

  7. System Level Overview • Photoconductor • Hold Photosensitive Material • Photosensitive Material • Increased conductivity during exposure to light • Traverse EDTS • Interact Photosensitive Material with • Charge • Discharge • Development • Transfer

  8. System Level Overview • Charging • Establish an electrical field within the area of the Photoconductor • Photoconductor passes at very small distance • Corona • Wires subjected to up to 10,000 Volts • Grid • Distribute charge of corona

  9. System Level Overview • Exposure • Expose Photosensitive material to light • Reduce charge on exposed areas • Electrostatic latent image remains

  10. System Level Overview • Development • Deposit charged toner particles onto charged areas of photosensitive material • Magnetic Developer creates a “wall” of toner and developer

  11. System Level Overview • Transfer • Transfer toner from photosensitive material to paper • Transfer Drum is Charged • Two Steps • Toner to Transfer Drum • Transfer Drum to Paper

  12. System Level Functional Diagram • Functional Diagram shows areas for improvement

  13. Customer Needs • 1. Is Operational • 2. Is Safe • 3. Minimizes user intervention during Charging • 4. Minimizes user intervention during Discharge • 5. Minimizes user intervention during Development • 6. Minimizes user intervention during Transfer • 7. Minimizes user intervention during maintenance • 8. Can monitor key process parameters • 9. Automation of Parameter Settings • 10. Can operate and monitor machine from one interface • 11. Easy to learn to use • 12. Areas for system upgrades are identified and documentation for upgrade procedures available where applicable • 13. Maintenance of system is documented • 14. Both drawings and Bills of Materials document device • 15. Operation of Device Is Documented • 16. Toner clean up • 17. Inventory and Status Report of current systems • 18. Vary charging voltage • 19. Vary charging current • 20. Vary exposure • 21. Can accommodate different toner materials • 22. Vary development voltage • 23. Vary development current • 24. Can use multiple toner stations • 25. Vary transfer voltage • 26. Vary transfer current • 27. Improve exposure subsystem • 28. Monitor charge of the Photoconductor • 29. Incorporate other manufacturers development systems • 30. Paper delivery system Ability to accommodate different types of media

  14. Engineering Specifications • Please see documentation

  15. Ozone Fan/Filter Assembly Phil Lopez

  16. Description • Reduce and Secure Ozone Test Stand • Ozone hazardous to humans if exposed to enough • Law states maximum ozone in A/C Space is 0.05 ppm [1] • >0.200 ppm increases risk of health issues [1] • Two Options • Verify current system or • Implementation of further improvement to control Ozone Levels [1] http://www.ozoneservices.com/articles/007.htm

  17. Ozone Customer Needs Satisfied and Associated Specifications

  18. Current System

  19. Current Mount

  20. New Mount (If Necessary)

  21. Proof of Concept • Measure ozone at various locations to determine if measurements are within limits • Test/Experimental – TBD due to insufficient equipment = Test Areas

  22. Proof of Concept

  23. Proof of Concept • Set values • 0-1.0 kV at increments of 0.1 kV for Grid and Corona • 1-10kV at increments of 0.5 kV for Grid and Corona • Will Measure • Ozone Produced without Fan • Ozone Produced with Fan • At original height and two inches higher

  24. Proof of Concept • Material Selected Al 2024 • Stress found to be ~520 psi • Less than Yield Stress of 45ksi • Less than Ultimate Stress of 65ksi

  25. Bill of Materials

  26. Risk Assessment

  27. Monitoring the Charge on Photoconductor Min-Shi Hsiao

  28. Description • Output quality determined by functionality of each subsystem • Monitoring charge of photosensitive material will help characterize exposure input noise source • Can also help create charge v. exposure plot after measurement • Measuring device is Trek 344 Electrostatic Volt Meter (ESVM) • Probe functions like capacitor that charges up to same level as object being measured

  29. Customer Needs Satisfied and Associated Specifications

  30. Drawings/Schematics • Probe must be placed 2mm from PC surface • Cannot be held by hand • Could result in short or shock • Position should be fixed during measurement • Existing Camera Mounts used • Allows for easy adjustment • Intermediate probe mount needed to attach probe to camera mount

  31. Probe

  32. Current Camera Mounts

  33. Intermediate Mount

  34. Current Camera Mount with Probe Fixture

  35. Location of Measurements

  36. Proof of Concept • Mylar used for testing instead of PC Material • Mylar not sensitive to light, no exposure necessary • Mylar glued to PC plate and driven down EDTS • Begin with 500 Volts at charging • Measurements taken after charging and exposure

  37. Risk Assessment

  38. LED Exposure System Rachel Chrash

  39. Description • LED Print Heads used in copiers and printers to expose Photosensitive Material are commonly used • LED Exposure system to replace current incandescent system • Advantages • More versatile and reliable light source • Low Power Consumption • Longer Bulb Life • No potential for overheat • Inexpensive to replace

  40. Customer Needs Satisfied and Associated Specifications

  41. Current System vs. LED System • Current System • Incandescent light uses collimating lens to collect light and direct toward image plane • LED System • Provide more direct source of light to image plane

  42. LED Array

  43. Relative Intensity vs. Wavelength • Plot shows intensity, or relative spectral power distribution w.r.t. wavelenth • PC Material most sensitive to blue light which has shortest wavelength • Explains why system can be successfully operated in yellow light without large impact on PC exposure

  44. Proof of Concept • Most successful exposure results in even light distribution across entire image plane • Three light sources tested using Gossen PanLUX Analog Lux Meter • LUX = intensity (lumen/m2) • Grid constructed over image plane at level where exposure takes place • Light intensity and uniformity measured every 1x1 inch • Pinpoint measurements were then taken of the current system • 2x2 LED Array • 2x3 LED Array

  45. Proof of Concept

  46. Proof of Concept

  47. Mounting System • Array can be contained inside projector casing • Located at bottom or • Located on Small Shelf at height TBD by testing • Larger than 3x3 array could pose issue due to size • Modify Projector Case

  48. Bill of Materials

  49. Risk Assessment

  50. Paper Delivery System Ruth Gay