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Chap. 16 – Animal Behavior. Objectives: 1) Know the difference between innate and learned behavior. 2) Understand the different ways an animal can learn behavior. 3) Understand the difference types of behavior adaptations. 4) Know the importance of hibernation.

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chap 16 animal behavior
Chap. 16 – Animal Behavior
  • Objectives:
  • 1) Know the difference between innate and learned behavior.
  • 2) Understand the different ways an animal can learn behavior.
  • 3) Understand the difference types of behavior adaptations.
  • 4) Know the importance of hibernation.
  • 5) Define and understand certain vocabulary words.
slide2
How do you behave in certain situations?
  • Is your behavior positive or negative?
  • Do your friends act the same way you do in different situations?
  • Why?

This all comes down to behavior: the way an organism acts toward its environment

          • IE – How does your dog act when you get home?
          • Dogs are pack animals… they follow a leader…
          • Who is the leader?
    • Anything in the environment that causes a reaction is called a stimulus.
    • All animals have two types of behavior
slide3
1) Innate Behavior: behavior that an organism is born with
      • IE - A moth will fly toward the light… cockroaches run from it.
      • Animals with short life spans have more innate behaviors.
      • Why?
      • Simple innate behaviors are reflex reactions
        • IE – sneezing, shivering, yawning, pulling away from a hot surface. You do not think about the reaction – your body acts on its own.
      • Complex innate behaviors are called instincts.
slide4
2) Learned Behavior: behavior that develops from experience or practice in life

IE – You have to learn to play piano…

Associated with animals with complex brains.

Why is learning so important?

Ability to learn gives animals a better chance of survival.

If they don’t learn survival techniques, what happens?

slide5
There are four ways learned behavior is developed:
    • 1) Imprinting: forms an attachment within a specific time right after birth or hatching
        • IE – Goslings follow first thing after hatching…
    • 2) Trial and Error: behavior that is modified by experience
        • IE – Learning to ride a bike…
slide6
3) Conditioning: behavior is modified so that a previous response to a stimulus becomes associated with a different stimulus
      • IE – Scientist… Ivan Pavlov… studied conditioning… when dogs smell food they start to produce saliva… he would ring a bell every time he fed the dogs… the dogs connected the sound to the food… after a while, Pavlov could ring the bell without food, and the dogs would produce saliva automatically…
      • Stimulus?
      • Response?
  • 4) Insight: use of past experiences to solve new problems
      • IE – Math… use previous knowledge to solve new problems
      • IE – little kids trying to get on a table… use chair to get high enough…
      • Much of adult human learning is based on insight
slide7
Five Behavioral Adaptations:

Some behaviors have to be adapted to ensure the survival of their species.

  • Territorial Behavior
  • -Territory: an area an animal defends from other members of the same species.
  • -Mark their territory with sounds, smell, or by patrolling their area

Why are territories important?

Need for food, shelter and potential mates

-Defending a territory is an instinctive behavior that improves the chance of survival

How do they defend their territory?

When a dog is eating and another dog approaches… reaction?

Hair stands up, growls and shows teeth

Why?

-Aggressionis a forceful act used to dominate or control another animal

IE - Birds… wings lower, feathers puff up, pecking motion

Animals seldom fight to the death… Why?

Fighting wastes energy… can hurt survival.

slide8
2) Courtship Behavior: allows male and female members of a species to recognize each other and to attract another for mating at the same time
      • Courtship: behavior an animal performs before mating
      • usually… males perform courtship display
      • ensures survival of species!
  • 3) Social Behavior: interactions among organisms of the same species
      • IE – courtship, caring for young, claiming territories, protection, and/ or getting food
        • Society: group of animals of the same species living and working together in an organized way
        • one female lays eggs, workers do all work
          • IE – ants, bees, termites…
        • Some societies controlled by dominance
          • IE – wolves… dominant female… total control…
slide9
In social behavior, there has to be:
  • 4) Communication: exchange of information
          • How do animals exchange information?
  • a) Chemical Communication
        • Use of pheromones: chemical produces by the animal that influences the behavior of another animal of the same species
          • mark territory, warn of danger, attract mates…
          • stays in environment to send message
          • IE – ants – lay down a chemical trail…
          • dogs – urinate to mark territory

b) Sound Communication

          • Many animals use sound to send a message
          • IE – male crickets attract females… and warn other males
          • male mosquitoes sense sound from females
          • rabbits thump ground
          • gorillas thump chest
          • prairie dogs bark
          • birds sing
slide10
5) Cyclic Behavior: innate behaviors that occur in a repeating pattern
      • repeat in response to environmental changes

a) Hibernation: cyclic response to cold temperatures and limited food supplies

        • body temperature drops
        • breathing rate is reduced
        • survive on stored fat
        • IE- Mammals, amphibians, reptiles…

b) Migration: instinctive seasonal movement of animals

        • instead of hibernating
        • find food
        • reproduce in a better environment
        • IE – Birds… Arctic Tern travels 17700 km one way!
        • IE – Gray whale swim south… bear young… then return…
  • Why are innate and learned behaviors so important to animals?
  • Helps animals survive, reproduce and maintain their species.
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