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Aims and Objectives • To understand British actions in the ‘Mandate of Palestine between 1919-1948 • To assess the impact WW2 on the British mandate in Palestine • To identify the main reasons why Britain withdrew from Palestine
Middle East Why is the middle east important to Britain? • Important link to Britain's Empire in Far East • Britain had military bases in Middle East • Vital Oil supplies
The Ottoman Empire in 1914 • Ottoman empire enters WW1 (Axis) • Britain and France keen not to loose influence in Middle East • Join forces to defeat Ottoman Empire in Middle East and Africa • WW1-Britain wanted Arab and Jewish support • Ottoman Empire Defeated 1918 • Britain and France acquire the territories of Ottoman Empire
Palestine Mandate • UN gives Palestine to Britain as a ‘Mandated Territory • Palestine-Strategic importance to Britain –Defended Eastern Flank of Suez Canal • Ancient Holy Land for Jews, Muslims and Christians • 1919- 90% population Arab • Post WW1 –Jews start emigrating to Palestine • Britain sympathetic to Jewish cause in Palestine
r country. The Balfour Declaration- Nov 2nd 1917 By Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour “His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/A-twice-promised-land-6175960/ Questions How will Jews in Palestine (and emigrating into Palestine) feel about the Balfour decleration? How would the Arab population in Palestine feel about it?
Problems in Palestine! • 1920-1930 –Thousands of Jews move into Palestine • Zionists- Wanted to create a Jewish homeland • 1914- 7.6% Jewish • 1940- 30% • Arab population in Palestine become concerned • Britain hoped Palestine could support both Jews and Arabs • Arab population concerned about their land been taken by Jews • 1936-1939 –Arab Revolt in Palestine
WW2-A Turning Point? • Outbreak of WW2 –change in British approach in Palestine • Support of Arab states in Middle East Crucial • Stability of Middle East region was paramount • Support of Arab population in Palestine essential • 1939-White Paper • No partition of Palestine • Independent Arab State within 10 years • Jewish Immigration limited (less than 10,000 a year • Jewish immigrants were placed in concentration camps
(q) How do you think the Holocaust would affect attitude towards Jews ?
WW2- A Turning Point? The Jews had several factors on their side • Many Jews had fought so loyally with the allies against the Germans • Sense of guilt felt by the allied nations over the Nazi’s execution of 6 million Jews in the Holocaust • The US was now the major power- Huge Jewish influence in the US • Labour party in 1944 accepted that Jews should be the majority in Palestine
Palestine Post 1945 • 1945-Most expected Labour gov to support Jewish cause in Palestine HOWEVER! • Ernest Bevin was keen to ensure stability and peace in Palestine & Middle East • Support of Arab Nations still vital to Britain’s interests • 1945: Sets monthly quota of Jewish immigration to 1,500 • Bevin hoped to find a compromise between the Jewish and Arab population in Palestine • Armed Jewish Milita- Haganah. –Stern Gang
USA • USA key supporter of Jewish Cause • 1945- Harry S Truman demanded continued Jewish immigration and creation of a Jewish state • 1946 Anglo-American committee created • Truman announces support for 100,000 Jews to enter Palestine • Attlee and Bevin horrified- would damage Anglo-Arab relations • Britain would only accept this if • Partition of Palestine • US would help in Palestine • Illegal Zionist military groups would disband THESE WERE REJECTED BY THE USA
Terrorism • Attacks against Britain forces in Palestine increased in 1946 (as well as Arabs and pro-British jews) • July 1946 –Irgun Bombs of King David Hotel -91 killed • Britain arrested many Jews suspected of terrorism and increased military presence • Strengthen Britain’s determination to oppose Zionists and Immigration
Britain hopes to divide Palestine into Arab Provinces and Jewish Provinces under one administration run by Britain • Truman opposed the Idea • Truman continued to call for Jewish immigration into Palestine • Now supported idea of Partition of Palestine • Arabs totally apposed to this idea
Britain withdraws from Palestine • Bevin could not get either side to agree- ‘Being at the end of my tether’ • 1947- 100,000 British Troops in Palestine (1/10 of British armed forces) • £40 Million a year • Unable to keep peace • Winston Churchill ‘What are they doing there? What good are we getting out of it? • Feb 1947 Britain's economic situation worsens • Bevin refers Palestine problem to the UN
The UN Partitions and allow 150,000 Jewish immigrants into Palestine in next 2 years • Britain outraged by the UN proposals- Bevin ‘manifestly unjust to the Arabs in Palestine’ • December 1947 Britain announces it is withdrawing from Palestine within 6 months • May 1948 all British troops had left Palestine
Why did Britain withdraw from Palestine? Using the textbook complete the table outlining the reasons why Britain withdrew from Palestine in 1948 • Extension • Did Britain’s actions pre-1945 make British withdrawal from Palestine inevitable?
Sources- Palestine Each of the sources are about Britain and its involvement in Palestine • 1) In pairs look at the sources • 2) Explain on the back of the sheet what each source is saying
These babies are some of Britain's colonies that are troublesome hence the crying. It is showing that Britain is struggling to hold onto these colonies 1. This is Britain This is Harry S Truman the US president he favours Jewish immigration into Palestine This is Palestine which shows that it is divided between Jews and Arabs
The King David Hotel was the centre of British operations In Palestine- Jewish Terrorist group the Irgun bombed the hotel on 22nd July 1946 2. Some sympathy for Zionism was lost as a result of the attack on the King David hotel. It was condemed internationally
3. This boat is Palestine and is show as sinking –Depicting that Palestine is descending into chaos by the violence between Jews and Arabs This is Britain they are asking the bigger boat- could be either the UN or US or the wider world for help with the Palestine problem. Britains ship is also alot smaller than the Palestine and other boat –Britain cannot ‘tow’ Palestine
4. These are the jews. The cartoon is showing that the Jews have no where to go and that many areas do not want Jews to go there
Ernest Bevin –British Foreign Secretary 5. The Palestine Mandate –The two babies are the Jewish and Arab population The Door of the United Nations, Showing that Britain is tempted to give back the Palestine Mandate to the UN
Some Key Words/terms to remember For homework define the following terms- • Jews • Arabs • Mandate • Balfour Declaration • Stern Gang • Irgun • Zionism • UN partition of Palestine • Israel • British Mandate in Palestine