Recovery and Expansion 1300-1600
Key Ideas • 1450: Europe had recovered from Hundred Years War, Black Death, and divided Church • Monarchs took advantage of weak Church • Spice trade and desire for metals • Spain: powerful economic and military force
Hundred Years War • 1337-1453 • England vs. France • Push England out of Calais • What were the effects of the war on Europe
Effects of War • Issues: famine, disease, population decrease, tax burden, France economically hurt, but unified
"The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a gush of blood from the nose was the plain sign of inevitable death; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the size of a small apple or an egg, more or less, and were vulgarly called tumours. In a short space of time these tumours spread from the two parts named all over the body. Soon after this the symptoms changed and black or purple spots appeared on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These spots were a certain sign of death, just as the original tumour had been and still remained. Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian writer from Florence wrote this description of the plague in an introduction to The Decameron.
Black Death • 1347-1350 • 1/3 population died • Wakened social bonds • Church had no answer • Shortage of labor help textile industry
Weakened Papacy • 1309-1377:Avignon Papacy under French influence • Great Schism (1378-1417) • Attempts to break that influence • Called: Conciliar Movement
Council of Basel • Failed to accomplish reformist goals • Church must not neglect the needs of the purist of worldly power • Allowed secular governments: Kings in England and France that would gain some control over the churches in their lands
Revival of Monarchy • 1450 • Unified notational monarchies • Create national armies • Professional armies
War of the Roses • House of York and Lancaster • 1455-1485 • Power struggle until House of Tudor defeated Richard III • Henry VII: began to curb the power of the nobility
Monarchs in France • Charles VII: professional army • Louis XI: silk production
Germany • Holy Roman Empire • Decentralized power
Spain • Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469 • United two kingdom • Conquered the Moors • Compete control of the Church in their kingdom • Inquisition 1479: forced conversion to Christianity • Spanish Jews exiled • Promoted overseas exploration
Spice markets • Ground travel too hard • Shorter route • Led to Spanish Empire in the new world
Get into groups: Was the European exploration and expansion in late 15th century and early 16th century, good or bad for World History?