What is the difference between culture and society? • Culture refers to all the shared products that human groups use. • Societies are the groups of people that use a shared culture.
What is material culture? • Material culture refers to anything one can touch. • Examples include iPods, computers, books, clothes, buildings, cars, shoes, pencils, cell phones, etc….
What is non-material culture? • Non-material culture refers to things one can’t touch. • Examples include religion, language, political systems, rituals, etc…
Out of the five components of culture, which one stands for something else? • Symbols are images or gestures that stand for something else. • Examples include flags, company logos, handshakes, mascots, ‘ok’ sign, ribbons, etc….
Out of the five components of culture, what is a system of symbols? • Language is an organized system of symbols that combine for the purpose of communication. • There are about six thousand of languages worldwide.
Out of the five components of culture, what are shared beliefs called? • Values are shared ideas of what is good or bad or right or wrong in that society.
Out of the five components of culture, what are shared rules of behavior? • Norms are shared rules of behavior that tell people how to act in certain situations. • Norms vary from time to time and place to place; for example what is appropriate behavior for church is not what is appropriate for a Friday night dance.
What are the two types of norms? • Folkways do not have great moral significance to them. These would include burping, farting, swearing, & picking one’s nose. • Mores do have great moral significance to them. These would include killing, stealing, lying, domestic abuse, & sexual assault.
Which society lived in the Pacific Northwest and was based on cooperation? • The Kwakiutl carved totem poles to tell stories about their tribe. • Their society was based on respect & sharing, unlike the Yanomamo. • They held potlatches, or ceremonies in which the host would give items away. This would build harmony and friendships amongst the entire tribe.
What are cultural universals? • Cultural universals are features common to all societies. • Some needs are so basic, they can be found in every society on Earth. • Despite our tremendous diversity, these show that humans have more commonalities than differences.
What are some examples of cultural universals? Shelter & houses Religious & spiritual beliefs Music & art Funeral rites & ceremonies
Who studied tribes in Papua New Guinea? • Margaret Mead studied various groups in the Pacific, specifically Samoa and PNG. • After living with the Arapesh and the Mungudumor, she believed that ‘nurture’ was stronger than ‘nature’ in developing our beliefs and behaviors.
What are the two ways of viewing cultural diversity? • Ethnocentrism is the belief that one culture is superior to all others. • Cultural relativism is the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards, not by outsiders. This helps reduce prejudice.
In complex societies, what are groups that exist within the mainstream culture? • Subcultures are groups that are within a larger, more complex society. However, they have unique traits, which make them distinct from the dominant culture. • Examples include Chinatown, Spanish Harlem, and Native American reservations.
In complex societies, what are groups that reject the mainstream culture? • Countercultures intentionally reject the values of the dominant cultures. • Examples of countercultures include the mafia, the KKK, and hippies in the US.
What is a subsistence strategy? • A subsistence strategy refers to how a particular society uses technology to survive in their environment. • There are three basic subsistence strategies throughout the world.
What is the pre-industrial subsistence strategy? • Pre-industrial societies use a basic level of technology in food production. Countries would include Chad, Haiti, and Burma. • Hunters and gatherers collect wild food daily. • Pastoral groups herd animals. • Horticultural groups have small garden plots. • Agricultural groups use large farms to support their basic food needs.
What are characteristics of industrial societies? • Industrial societies use machines to assist people in adapting to their environment. • Places such as China, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Mexico are industrial societies. • Sometimes harsh labor and trade conditions are present.
What are characteristics of post-industrial societies? • Post-industrial societies use a high level of technology, mainly in service industries, like education. • The United States, Britain, France, Japan, and Germany are all post-industrial societies. • A high standard of living is counteracted by high levels of inequality in post-industrial societies.
Main Ideas: • What was the point of the Nacirema article? • What was the point of the ‘If the World Were a Village’ book? • How many people live in the world today? How many in the US?