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CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity. Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Section 2: Cultural Variation. Section 1: The Meaning of Culture. Objectives:. Define the meaning of the term culture and explain how material culture and non- material culture differ.

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chapter 2 cultural diversity

CHAPTER 2Cultural Diversity

Section 1: The Meaning of Culture

Section 2: Cultural Variation

objectives

Section 1: The Meaning of Culture

Objectives:
  • Define the meaning of the term culture and explain how material culture and non- material culture differ.
  • Identify and describe the basic components of culture.
culture

Section 1: The Meaning of Culture

Culture
  • Culture – consists of all the shared products of human groups which include physical objects, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group
  • Material Culture – are physical objects that people create and use such as books, buildings, clothing, and cooking
  • Nonmaterial Culture – are abstract human creations that include beliefs, family patterns, ideas, and language
slide4

CULTURE

Non material Culture

Material Culture

Examples

Examples

all the shared products of human groups

abstract human creations

physical objects that people create and use

automobiles, books, buildings, clothing, computers, and cooking

beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, and rules

basic components of culture

Section 1: The Meaning of Culture

Basic Components of Culture
  • Technology – physical objects and rules for using them
  • Symbols – anything that represents something else and has a shared meaning
  • Language – the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system
  • Values – shared beliefs about what is good and bad or right or wrong
  • Norms – shared rules of conduct
objectives6

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Objectives:
  • Describe cultural universals and explain why they exist.
  • Explain what the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean.
  • Identify factors that account for variations among and within cultures.
cultural universals

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Cultural Universals
  • Cultural universals – general traits common to all cultures
  • Exist because some needs are so basic that all societies must develop certain features to ensure their fulfillment
ethnocentrism and cultural relativism

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one’s own

culture and group as superior to all others.

 People in all societies are at times ethnocentric.

 When ethnocentrism is too extreme, cultural growth

may stagnate.

–  Limiting the number of immigrants into a society can cause this.

 Extreme ethnocentrism can also lead to conflicts such as wars.

ethnocentrism and cultural relativism9

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism is the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards.

–  Researchers attempt to understand cultural practices from the point of view of the people they are studying.

  • Participant Observation useful
ethnocentrism and cultural relativism10

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism helps sociologists in understanding why people in different societies have different cultural norms.

–    e.g. the Sepoy Rebellion of India in 1857 (gunpowder cartridges were sealed with pig or beef fat, both are religiously offensive to Hindu and Muslims)

slide11

Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism

Example

Example

the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to other different cultures

belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture

factors that account for variations among and within cultures

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Factors That Account for Variations Among and Within Cultures
  • Subculture – shared values, norms and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population
  • Counterculture – rejection of the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replacing them with a new set of cultural values
    • The old older Amish are a good example of a counterculture. They have done everything they can to demonstrate their separation from the world around them..
factors that account for variations among and within cultures13

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Factors That Account for Variations Among and Within Cultures
  • Subculture – shared values, norms and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population
  • Counterculture – rejection of the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replacing them with a new set of cultural values
    • The old older Amish are a good example of a counterculture. They have done everything they can to demonstrate their separation from the world around them..
slide14

Section 2: Cultural Variation

Chapter Wrap-Up

1.List five examples of material culture and five examples of nonmaterial culture.

2. What is language, and why is it such an important part of culture?

3. How do folkways, mores, and laws differ? List three examples of each type of norm.

4. How do cultural traits, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns differ?

5. How did Margaret Mead contribute to the study of cultures?

6. What is ethnocentrism? How does it differ from cultural relativism?

7. How are subcultures and countercultures related?

essay questions
Essay Questions
  • Identify the three levels of culture studied by sociologist and explain how they are related. (you may use a graphic organizer to help with your explanation)
  • Discuss the conclusions of Margret Mead research concerning temperament, explain how she arrived at her conclusion.

3. Describe the environmental factors that might account for the differences between the Arapesh and the Mundugumor

4. Explain what ethnocentrism is, how it is different from cultural relativism and why extreme ethnocentrism can cause a culture to stagnate?