CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity. Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Section 2: Cultural Variation. Section 1: The Meaning of Culture. Objectives:. Define the meaning of the term culture and explain how material culture and non- material culture differ.
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Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
Section 2: Cultural Variation
Non material Culture
all the shared products of human groups
abstract human creations
physical objects that people create and use
automobiles, books, buildings, clothing, computers, and cooking
beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, and rules
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one’s own
culture and group as superior to all others.
People in all societies are at times ethnocentric.
When ethnocentrism is too extreme, cultural growth
– Limiting the number of immigrants into a society can cause this.
Extreme ethnocentrism can also lead to conflicts such as wars.
Cultural relativism helps sociologists in understanding why people in different societies have different cultural norms.
– e.g. the Sepoy Rebellion of India in 1857 (gunpowder cartridges were sealed with pig or beef fat, both are religiously offensive to Hindu and Muslims)
the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to other different cultures
belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture
1.List five examples of material culture and five examples of nonmaterial culture.
2. What is language, and why is it such an important part of culture?
3. How do folkways, mores, and laws differ? List three examples of each type of norm.
4. How do cultural traits, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns differ?
5. How did Margaret Mead contribute to the study of cultures?
6. What is ethnocentrism? How does it differ from cultural relativism?
7. How are subcultures and countercultures related?
3. Describe the environmental factors that might account for the differences between the Arapesh and the Mundugumor
4. Explain what ethnocentrism is, how it is different from cultural relativism and why extreme ethnocentrism can cause a culture to stagnate?