Zaman Gelap Abad ke-5 sampai Abad ke-10. Akhir Cendekiawan Arab Setelah tahun 1100, cendekiawan Arab terus berkurang (tidak ada penerus) Alkemi Arab juga meneruskan kegiatan alkemi Mereka memadukan alkemi dari Yunani dengan alkemi dari Cina (dari Taoisme)
Akhir Cendekiawan Arab
Docendi, Doctor, Magister
Disputatio dan Tesis
Like other university-educated men, the doctor was rational in a dialectical way, in using Aristotle’s logic and its medieval developments. He was trained in this according to statutory rules that governed how often pupils and masters should dispute. In most universities masters were obliged to respond to questions, including quodlibets. Bolognese doctors who were entitled to teach had to dispute once a week and make arrangements for the publication of their solution to the questions. Physicians and philosophers of standing were also obliged to dispute on or near feast days; we know that Dino del Garbo did so in Bologna and that he once disputed with Gentile da Foligno in the street. . We have seen how, even in the twelfth century, logic was popular in the heroic schools, and now that the Posterior Analytics of Aristotle seemed to supply a programme for investigating the natural world, its range and power were greatly increased. Disputations were exercises in sustaining one thesis over another by questioning its premisses or logic, and an important technique was the ‘distinction’ where different meanings could be drawn out of single term. The result could be an exciting or noisy meeting (we have noted Bacon’s complaint that doctors were too anxious to dispute). They were also public affairs and provided an external face of university rationality, whether medical or otherwise
The written form of disputation was the dubium, the disputed question. This had a rigid and complex form and some disputed questions were hugely elaborate. These two features have repelled both sixteenth-century Hellenists and humanists and some later historians, but it will serve our purposes to take a quick look at the form. A disputed question was one that arose from the study of a text and normally took the form of a question that expected a positive answer, beginning An …or Utrum…(‘Whether…’). Then came a section in which all the negative arguments were brought forward. Ideally, the form of the argument was syllogistic, with both major and minor propositions being drawn from the text, from the words of another authority or from sensory experience. These arguments were then attacked and destroyed in the same way, leaving the positive answer unscathed. Along the way other small objections or ‘instances’ were brought up and disposed of, as if to show that all possible objections could be satisfied. Commentators such as Dino del Garbo and Gentile da Foligno in the first half of the fourteenth century commonly put the objections in the mouth of the reader, a sort of student-figure: ‘But you will at once say …’, Sed statim tu dices …
A German merchant of the fifteenth century asked an eminent professor where he should send his son for a good business education. The professor responded that German universities would be sufficient to teach the boy addition and subtraction but he would have to go to Italy to learn multiplication and division.
Before you smile indulgently, try multiplying or even just adding the Roman numerals CCLXIV, MDCCCIX, and MLXXXI without first translating them
John Allen Paulis, Beyond Numeracy
Tradisi di Universitas Paris
Upacara di Universitas Paris
Pembentukan Universitas Baru
By the year 1000 the feudal system was established, some governments were stabilized, commerce revived, towns prospered. Learning was still a monopoly of the cathedral schools, with one noteworthy exception: since early in the 10th century, scholars had gathered at Salerno in Italy to teach and study medicine.
The Civitas Hippocratica, the city Hippocrates, was the first secular academic community in Europe and a direct offshoot of Arabic learning: the legend of its founding by a Greek, a Latin, an Arab, and a Jewish physician symbolized the four non-ecclesiastic sources of knowledge. Although it became famous throughout Europe and was eventually called a university, it remained a medical school only and had no role in the new academe. The first true universities, and the models for those that followed, were those of Bologna and Paris.
Both were born that founded: they were already thriving centers of learning when they won notice from
Parsimoni (Pisau Cukur Ockham)
Ockham’s razor, also spelled Occam’s razor, also called Law of Economy, or Law of Parsimony, name given to the principle stated by William of Ockham (1285-1349?), a Scholastic, that non sunt multiplicanda entia practer necessitatum; i.e. entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity.
The principle was, in fact, invoked before Ockham by Durand de Saint-Pourçain, a French Dominican theologian and philosopher of dubious orthodoxy, who used it to explain that abstraction is the apprehension of some real entity, such as an Aristotelian cognitive species, an active intellect, or a disposition, all of which he spurned as unnecessary. Likewise, in science, Nicole d’Oresme, a 14th-century French physicist, invoked the law of economy, as did Galileo later, in defending the simplest hypothesis of the heavens. Other later scientists stated similar simplifying laws and principles.
Ockham, however, mentioned the principle so frequently and employed it so sharply that it was called
Kisah Gigi Kuda
In the year of our Lord, 1432, there arose a grievous quarrel among the brethren over the number of teeth in the mouth of a horse. For thirteen days the disputation raged without ceasing. All the ancient books and chronicles were fetched out, and wonderful and ponderous erudition was made manifest. At he beginning of the fourteenth day a youthful friar of goodly bearing asked his learned superiors for permission to add a word, and straightaway, to the wonder of the disputants, whose deep wisdom he sorely vexed, he beseeched them in a manner coarse and unheard of, to look in the mouth of a horse and find answers to their questionings. At this, their dignity being grievously hurt, they waxed exceedingly wroth; and joining in a mighty uproar they flew upon him and smote him hip and thigh and cast him out forthwith. For, they said, “Surely Satan hath tempted this bold neophyte to declare unholy and unheard-of ways of finding truth, contrary to all the teachings of the fathers.” After many days of grievous strife the dove of peace set on the assembly, and they, as one man, declaring the problem to be an everlasting mystery because of a dearth of historical and theological evidence thereof, so ordered the same writ down.
Bahaya Metoda Induktif
Alchemy, the pseudoscience whose aims were to transform base metals such as lead or copper into silver or gold. Although such attempts have involved chemical procedures, evidence linking the pseudoscience with the development of chemistry itself remains inconclusive.
The theory that five elements (air, water, earth, fire, space) in various combinations constitute all matter was postulated in almost identical form in ancient China, India, and Greece. Further, the world of matter was seen to function by means of antagonistic, opposing “forces”—e.g., hot and cold, wet and dry, positive and negative, male and female. Under their similar astrological heritages, philosophers of these three cultures found correspondences among the elements, planets, and metals.
Astrologers believed that events in the macrocosm of the natural world were reflected in the human microcosm, and vice versa. Thus, under the proper astrological influences, a “perfection,” or “healing,” of lead into gold might occur, just as the human soul could achieve a perfect state in heaven. The artisan in his laboratory could perhaps hasten this process by careful nurture and long heating, by “kill-
While the practical alchemists invented and used many laboratory apparatuses and procedures that in modified form are used today, they were still essentially artisans and did not wish to reveal their trade secrets. In an effort to preserve the esoteric nature of their practices, they devised many concealing, symbolic names for the materials with which they work. In addition, Greek writers usually ascribed their manuscripts to some god, hero, king, or philosopher of old as a further concealment.
The confusing tendencies were intensified as the mystically minded began to develop alchemical ideas. As Hellenistic philosophy shifted more and more from the technical scientific viewpoint to the emphasis on divine revelation of Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, and Christianity, the alchemical writings became esoteric to the point of total obscurity. In time the Chinese practitioners, who sought to make gold not for its own sake but as an elixir of immortality, also came to emphasize the esoteric aspects at the expense of all practical technique, and the art degenerated into a mass of superstition. Alchemy in India eventually met with a similar fate.
Arabic alchemy is as mysterious in its origins
Renaissance physicists and chemists began to discount the possibility of transmutation on the basis of a renewed interest in Greek atomism. The chemical facts that had been accumulated by the alchemists were now reinterpreted and made the basis upon which modern chemistry was erected. It was not until the 19th
Scholaticism dan Induksi
Dinamika Gerak (Gallileo)
The philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian thinkers who, working on a background of fixed religious dogma, sought to solve anew general philosophical problems (as of faith and reason, will and intellect, realism and nominalism, and the provability of the existence of God), initially under the influence of the mystical and intuitional tradition of patristic philosophy and especially Augustinianism and later under that of Aristotle.
In the early Middle Ages the authority of the Church Fathers still remain important especially that of the Pseudo-Dionysus, with his hierarchically ordered cosmos. (Pseudo-Dionysus wrote under the name of Dionysus the Areopagite—one of St. Paul’s convents—around AD 500 in order to clothe his own works in a borrowed authority.) The impact of the controversial theologian Peter Abelard in the 11th century, however, brought logic to the forefront of scholastic philosophy and rendered reliance upon the authority of the Fathers alone inadequate.
For such medieval theologians as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, reasoned assumed an important role in theology, not as the antithesis of faith, but as its supplement. Thus, the scholastics made a systematic attempt to map out the field of theology as a science and
They began to prevail over the more contemplative and monastic schools, which held that theology considered in wisdom rather than in science. They borrowed freely from the philosophy of Aristotle, which came to them largely via the Islamic philosophers Averoes (1126-98) and Avicenna (980-1037). They aimed at a synthesis of learning in which theology surmounted the hierarchy of knowledge.
The primary methods of teaching were the lectio (lecture) and the disputatio (formal debate), which consisted largely in the presentation and analysis of syllogisms. Although there was fairly general agreement as to method and aim, Scholastics did not always agree among themselves on points of doctrines. Distinct schools of theology emerged, the most influential being those of the Franciscan Duns Scotus, for whom a world created in God’s groundless, absolute freedom could exhibit no “necessary reasons,” and the Dominican St. Thomas Aquinas, for whom faith, in general, presupposed and therefore required natural reason. The Thomist position tended increasingly to prevail, and Aquinas was eventually declared “common doctor” of the church and consider-
The polemical atmosphere of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation introduced a new factor. While Protestant theologians stressed scriptural and patristic authority and despised the Scholastics as logic-chopping obscurantists, Catholic theologians came to rely on the latter more and more heavily. The Metaphysical Disputations of the late 16th-century Jesuit Francisco Suares, however, reveal a concern for the spirit rather than the letter of Scholasticism. Rather than commentary on Aquinas, his work is an original philosophical treatises inspired by Aquinas and others.
The first author to try to extract a philosophy (apart from theology) from Aquinas was the Dominican John of St. Thomas in the 17th century with his Cursus Philosophicus, and this example was much followed. The medieval synthesis was still further fragmented as new treatises were devised on such subjects as ecclesiology, apologetics, moral theology, and cosmology. Nevertheless, the medieval were retained
A Thomist revival was announced and stimulated by Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Aeterni Puris (1879); so called Neoscholasticism became the dominant school in the Roman Catholic universities, although it proved at first incapable of dialogue with contemporary philosophy and played a conservative role in the Modernist crisis of the early years of the 20th century. Subsequently, however, Neoscholasticism and Neothomism earned renewed respect on the basis of the historical scholarship of the French Christian philosopher Etienne Gilson and others, who traced the original contributions of the Scholastics and their influence on subsequent philosophy.
Paracelsus dan Pengobatan
Paracelsus dan Alkemi
Alkemi Menjadi Kimia
Pada tahun 1798 pada kongres ilmu internasional, satuan meter diterima sebagai sistem metrik yang baru.
Satu meter adalah 1/10.000.000 bagian dari ¼ keliling bumi dari kutub ke kutub.
Dari satuan meter, ditentukan satuan liter dan kilogram (massa 1 liter air)
Sistem metrik menggunakan kelipatan 10, mili-, centi-, deci- (Latin) dan deca-, hecto-, kilo- (Yunani)
Metoda Ilmiah Descartes
Pengaruh Metoda Descartes
Methodic doubt in Cartesian philosophy, a way of searching for certainty by systematically though tentatively doubting everything. First, all statements are classified according to type and source of knowledge—e.g. knowledge from tradition, empirical knowledge, and mathematical knowledge. Then, examples from each class are examined. If a way can be found to doubt the truth of any statement, then all other statements of that type are also set aside as dubitable. The doubt is methodic because it assures systematic completeness, but also because no claim is made that all—or even that any—statements in a dubitable class are really false or that one must or can distrust them in an ordinary sense. The method is to set aside as conceivably false all statements and types of knowledge that are not indubitably true. The hope is that, by eliminating all statements and types of knowledge the truth of which can be doubted in any way, one will find some indubitable certainties.
In the first half of the 17th century, the French
Kritik terhadap Descartes
Contoh Tubuh Manusia
Teknik dan Teknologi
(National Geographic, August 2006, p. 39)
“The industrial revolution began the day in 1712 that Thomas Newcomen figured out how to use a steam engine to pump water out of a coal mine, so that it could be mined more cheaply and easily, thus allowing more steam engines.”
Filsafat Positivisme Logika
Kemajuan Ilmu Teknik
Beberapa dimensi kemajuan
Dari Ilmu ke Teknologi