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The Early Romantic Style 1825 through 1865 Terminology Virtuoso “One who excels in the technique of an art” Orchestration “To arrange for an orchestra” Idiomatic “Composing in a manner peculiar to the instrument being used” Gesamkunstwerk “Total art work” The Early Romantic

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the early romantic style

The Early Romantic Style

1825 through 1865

terminology
Terminology
  • Virtuoso
    • “One who excels in the technique of an art”
  • Orchestration
    • “To arrange for an orchestra”
  • Idiomatic
    • “Composing in a manner peculiar to the instrument being used”
  • Gesamkunstwerk
    • “Total art work”
the early romantic
The Early Romantic
  • How Music changed between 1825-30
    • Warning signs included
      • Paganini’s desire to make the difficult seem effortless
    • The effort to make the commonplace vitally significant
      • Listen to Weber’s Der Freischutz
    • The development of keyboard virtuosity
      • music of Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt
the general artistic climate
The General Artistic Climate
  • Music followed the lead of literature and the visual arts
    • By now, Goethe was an old man and Keats, Shelley and Byron were already dead
    • Sun rising through Vapour(JMW Turner (1775-1851) appeared in 1807
slide5
Next
  • Musical style changed in
    • Russia, Poland, Bohemia, Hungary
  • In 1829 Mendelssohn performs Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, beginning the rebirth of Bach and a rediscovery of the musical past
  • The piano is now the pre-eminent instrument
  • The “art” song becomes very popular
  • Existing forms such as the sonata form and the song form expand, becoming nearly perfect
felix mendelssohn 1809 1847
Felix Mendelssohn 1809-1847
  • Kept a foot in the Classical and Romantic
  • When Mendelsson was 16, he composed his Octet for Strings in E flat major, Op. 20
  • it was the one of the first works of its kind. 
  • The most gifted of the early Romantics
  • Regarded as the most talented composer since Mozart
hector berlioz 1803 1869
Hector Berlioz 1803-1869
  • The model for the Romantic composer
  • Brilliant orchestrator
    • Berlioz dreamed up previously unimagined sounds
    • Roman Carnival Overture
  • Berlioz was not a “salon” composer
    • He composed virtually nothing for the piano
romantic quiz 1
Romantic Quiz 1
  • 1. The Romantic style period
    • 1. 1600-1750
    • 2. 1750-1825
    • 3. 1825-1900
    • 4. 1900-present
  • 2. Total Art Work
    • 1. Gesamkunstwerk
    • 2. Gesundheit
    • 3. Gesticulate
    • 4. Gestapo
  • 3. “Sun Rising Through Vapour”
    • 1. Manet
    • 2. Monet
    • 3. Turner
    • 4. Shelly
  • 4. Octet for Strings in E-flat Major, Op. 20
    • 1. Chopin
    • 2. Schubert
    • 3. Schumann
    • 4. Berlioz
the piano was the instrument which defined the romantic period
The Piano was the Instrument which Defined the Romantic Period
  • Between 1825-1865, the instrument of choice was the Piano
  • Thousands of pieces were composed
chopin
Chopin
  • All of his piano pieces point to the future
  • Only great virtuosos can really “play” his music without having problems
  • For a while Frederic Chopin, the composer and pianist, wore a beard on only one side of his face. "It does not matter," he explained. "My audience sees only my right side.”
    • Piano Concerto No. 2
franz liszt
Franz Liszt
  • Hungarian virtuoso
  • A champion of the “New Music”
  • A born innovator
  • Bound music together more with the melody (horizontal) than with the harmony (vertical)
  • Liszt redefined what the 10 fingers were capable of doing
  • Liszt’s historical importance outweighs his matinee idol image
    • Transcendental Etude
robert schumann
Robert Schumann
  • Underestimated
  • Schumann’s style influenced composers for the rest of the century
    • Myrthen, Op. 25
giuseppe verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
  • Verdi felt opera was as natural as living and breathing
  • Verdi always had a good tune
  • Verdi’s dramas were compelling
    • Macbeth - Sleepwalking Scene
richard wagner
Richard Wagner
  • With Wagner, opera was the ultimate form of expression
  • Gesamkunstwerk
  • Following the Munich premiere of Tristan und Isolde on June 10, 1865, the world of music would never be the same
    • Prelude to “Tristan”
timeline
1831 - US Slave Rebellion

1832 - Goethe dies

1833 - GB Factory Act limits children’s working hours to 12 hours per day;Mendelssohn composes the Italian Symphony

1834 - Samuel Taylor Coleridge dies

1835 - Bellini dies; Hans Christian Anderson publishes “Tales Told for Children”

1836 - Mexican troops storm the Alamo; Darwin’s ship, The Beagle, returns home; Pitman invents shorthand; Morse code is invented

Timeline
timeline16
1837 - Victoria is crowned Queen of England

1839 - Daguerre and Fox independently pioneer photography

1840 - postage stamps introduced; Paganini dies

1841 - Covered Wagons travel the Oregon Trail

1845 - Irish potato blight; Wagner’s Tannhauser gets mixed reception

1846 - The planet Uranus is discovered

1847 - Mendelssohn dies; Liberia founded

1848 - Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto; Mexico cedes California to US; Donizetti dies

1849 - Chopin dies; Speed of light measured; California gold rush

Timeline
timeline17
1850 - William Wordsworth dies; Balzac dies

1852 - Uncle Tom’s Cabin published

1855 - Suez Canal begun

1856 - Pasteur discovers bacteria; Robert Schumann dies

1859 - Tennyson publishes The Idylls of the King

1860 - Florence Nightingale sets up Nurse Training School

1861 - Civil War breaks out in the US

1862 - Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables is published

1863 - Battle of Gettysburg

1865 - Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland published; Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn; Abraham Lincoln assassinated

Timeline
comparing classical and romantic styles
CLASSIC

Balanced, tuneful melodies

Homophonic textures

Symphony, concertos, sonatas

Aristocratic audience

Contrasting tone color between sections

The piano rises to prominence

ROMANTIC

Expansive melodies

Increasing chromaticism

Same, plus symphonic poems and small solo piano pieces

Middle-class audience

Experiments with new instruments

New instruments, larger orchestras, the piano is predominant

Comparing Classical and Romantic Styles
romanticism in music
Romanticism in Music
  • Results of the Industrial Revolution
    • cheaper instruments
    • technical advances
  • Expanded educational opportunities
  • The public concert hall
    • larger orchestras
    • more expressive timbres
  • Rise of Nationalism
  • Interest in exoticism
slide20

Romanticism in Music

  • Expansion of Musical Life
    • schools
    • ensembles
    • printed scores
    • music journals
  • Musicians as teachers
  • Women Musicians
    • Women could now receive training as
      • performers
      • Composers
      • the piano provided a socially accepted outlet
    • Many women became patrons
paganini and the violin
Paganini and the violin
  • Niccolo Paganini 1782-1840
  • the first modern violin virtuoso
  • born in Genoa 10/ 27/ 1782
  • studied composition and violin
  • age 8 composed a piano sonata
  • age 9 played a recital of his own compositions
  • age 14 - first tour of Italy
paganini
Paganini
  • 1805 - conductor of the Lucca Opera
  • 1828 - first performances in Vienna, Paris and London
  • composed in 1820 “24 Caprices” for unaccompanied violin
  • performed by a 20th century virtuoso, Midori
franz liszt 1811 1886
Franz Liszt 1811-1886
  • Composer, conductor, teacher, organizer of musical events
  • born in Hungary, studied in Paris
  • heard Paganini in 1831
  • a great pianist and a showman
  • Countess Marie d’Agoult (Daniel Stern)
    • 3 children (Cosima became the wife of Wagner)
  • “Music of the Future”Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein
  • Abbe Liszt
the music of franz liszt
The Music of Franz Liszt
  • Principal Works
    • Orchestral Music, including 2 piano concertos
    • piano music
    • choral music
    • opera and songs
  • Thematic transformation
  • the creator of modern piano technique
  • Wild HuntTranscendental Etude No. 8
    • composed 1838
    • A-B-A form
    • transcends the limitations of the keyboard
christofori s original piano
Christofori’s original piano
  • About 1720, Christofori finished his first real pianoforte (he actually developed the idea around 1700). He constructed a much stronger case than had been used for harpsichords, to withstand the increased strain of the heavier strings. The action in this pianoforte shows important improvement over his model of 1707. He added the escapement device, a back check, regulating the fall of the hammer, and connected an individual damper for each note direct with the hammer action, thus giving the performer a mechanism with which he could, through his touch produce a delicate pianissimo and also a strong fortissimo, impossible on either clavichord or harpsichord.
interesting facts
Interesting Facts
  • The average pianoexerts a tension of 18 tons!
  • There are 7500 partsin the action
  • There are more than10 million pianos in America
  • Today there are more than 50 brands
  • In the past 100 years there have been more than 5000 brands
the piano in the 19th century
THE PIANO IN THE 19th CENTURY
  • The piano became the instrument of choice
    • became the main instrument in the home
    • very attractive to the amateur
    • the virtuoso pianist
    • the modern grand piano
    • the piano recital
  • Technical developments
  • Short lyric piano piece
    • parallel to song
    • new descriptive titles
    • small forms - prelude, nocturne
    • large forms - ballade, rhapsody
    • dance forms - waltz, mazurka, polonaise
19th century piano music
19th Century Piano Music
  • Composers of the short piano piece
    • Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara Schumann, Brahms
    • Mendelssohn: Songs Without WordsOp. 62 No. 6 & 7
    • Fortepiano by Graf, Vienna
      • Mendelssohn “Spring Song”
frederic francois chopin 1810 1849
Frederic Francois Chopin1810-1849
  • The national composer of Poland
  • Warsaw Conservatory
  • Liszt, Berlioz, Victor Hugo, George Sand, Alxendre Dumas, Eugene Delacroiz
    • Daguerreotype of Chopin, 1849, once attributed to Nadar. Nineteenth-century collotype courtesy of Wurlitzer-Bruck, New York City.
frederic chopin 1810 1849
FREDERIC CHOPIN1810 - 1849
  • 1810 - Chopin born on March 1 in Zelazowa Wola of French-Polish parents. In October the family moves to Warsaw
  • 1817 - Chopin has a Polonaise published
  • 1820 - Italian soprano gives Chopin a gold watch after hearing him play
  • 1825 - Chopin plays the aeolopantaleon for Tsar Alexander I
aeolopantaleon
AEOLOPANTALEON
  • Aeolopantaleon
    • Invented by a cabinet maker, Dlugosz
    • Half aeolomelodikon and half piano
    • Aeolomelodikon
      • Invented by Jacob Hofman, a naturalist around 1825
      • A type of organ with a keyboard and foot pedals
      • The foot pedals activated a pair of bellows and forced air through metal cylinders into large tin trumpets
      • The sound could be reedy, like a clarinet, of brassy
      • It could drown out a 50 piece orchestra
frederic chopin 1810 184932
FREDERIC CHOPIN1810 - 1849
  • 1827 - Chopin studies at the Warsaw Conservatory
  • 1829 - Chopin makes his Vienna debut
  • 1831 - Chopin settles in Paris
  • 1834 - Chopin meets Mendelssohn
  • 1835 - Chopin is impressed with Clara Wieck’s (Clara Schumann) playing
  • 1838 - Chopin and George Sand (Aurore Dudevant) become lovers
  • 1840 - Chopin’s health deteriorates
chopin 1810 1849
CHOPIN 1810 - 1849
  • 1844 - Chopin’s father dies
  • 1846 - Chopin’s relationship with George Sand cools down
  • 1848 - Chopin leaves Paris for England and Scotland
  • 1849 - Chopin dies on October 17 in Paris
  • Film: IMPROMPTU
chopin s music
Chopin’s Music
  • Modern Piano Style
    • creative life centered around the piano
    • created the feeling of sustaining the tone through ornaments
    • part of the standard repertory
  • Principal Works Include
    • 2 piano concertos
    • piano solo music
    • chamber music (all with piano)
    • songs
the music
The Music
  • Polonaise in A-flat, Op. 53
    • composed in 1842
    • tempo rubato
    • A-B-A form
    • triple-meter Polish dance (A section)
    • rapid descending octaves in the bass (B section)
  • Prelude in E minor
    • composed in 1839
    • from a set of 24 preludes inspired by WTC
    • very simple, yet very expressive
    • free form
slide36

Romanticism in MusicThe Art Song

  • Song structures
    • strophic
    • through composed
    • Song cycle
  • Lied
  • Composers of songs
    • Schubert
    • Schumann
    • Brahms
    • Wolf
  • Poets
    • Goethe
    • Heine
born himmelpfortgrund a suburb of vienna january 31 1797 died vienna november 19 1828
Born: Himmelpfortgrund, a suburb of Vienna, January 31,1797 Died: Vienna, November 19, 1828
  • Franz Schubert
schubert and the lied
Schubert and the Lied
  • Schubert
    • Viennese
    • gifted song composer
    • bohemian life
    • died young
  • Genres
    • Lieder
    • symphonies
    • chamber music
schubert erlkonig
Schubert: “Erlkonig”
  • Narrative poem by Goethe
  • Through-composed Lied
  • varied ranges in dialogue
  • Composed in 1815 - Schubert was 18
  • Characters:
    • Narrator, Father, Son, Father
    • Erlking
    • Son, Father
    • Erlking
    • Son, father
    • Erlking
    • Son
    • Narrator
robert and clara schumann
Robert Schumann 1810 - 1856

Robert studied with Friedrich Wieck, Clara’s father

Established The New Journal for Music

Suffered from an accident to his right hand

Married Clara in 1840

Clara Schumann 1819 - 1896

One of the most distinguished musicians of the 19th century

age 5 - studies pianoage 9 - first public appearance

Father opposes marriage

Robert and Clara Schumann
robert and clara schumann41
Robert

Suffered a breakdown in 1844

1850 appointed Music Director at Dusseldorf

Auditory hallucinations

Tried to commit suicide

Died at age 46

Clara

8 children

more famous than her husband

Leading performer of the musicof Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, and Frederic Chopin

Robert and Clara Schumann
robert and clara schumann42
Robert

Works include:

300 songs

4 symphonies

Chamber music

Chamber music

Piano music

Opera

Choral music

Clara

Accepted the 19th century view of women

last public concert at age 72

Principal works

solo piano music

piano concerto

chamber music

songs

Robert and Clara Schumann
robert and clara schumann43
Robert

“And if the Flowers Knew”

1840

Lied, from a song cycle Dichterliebe, “A Poet’s Love”, No. 8

Modified Strophic

Poem by Heine

Clara

Scherzo, Op. 10

1838 - age 19

typical of the Romantic Period, the composition is marked to be played “with passion”

Form: scherzo with 2 trios

Robert and Clara Schumann