the 2004 nobel prize in physics l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 221 Views
  • Uploaded on

The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. Sourendu Gupta (TIFR) St. Xavier’s College, 6/1/2005. The people. David J. Gross Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics University of California at Santa Barbara USA (b. 1941). The people. H. David Politzer California Institute of Technology USA

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics' - ostinmannual


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the 2004 nobel prize in physics

The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics

Sourendu Gupta (TIFR)

St. Xavier’s College, 6/1/2005

the people
The people

David J. Gross

Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics

University of California at Santa Barbara

USA

(b. 1941)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the people3
The people

H. David Politzer

California Institute of Technology

USA

(b. 1949)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the people4
The people

Frank Wilczek

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

USA

(b. 1951)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the prize
The prize

“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in strong interactions”

$1,300,000

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the work
The work

Gross and Wilczek, “Ultraviolet behaviour of non-Abelian gauge theories”, Physical Review Letters, vol 30, p 1343-1346, 1973

Politzer: Reliable perturbative results for Strong Interactions?”, Physical Review Letters, vol 30, p 1346-1349, 1973

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

nobel prizes for the strong interactions
Nobel Prizes for theStrong Interactions

2004 Gross, Politzer, Wilczek

1990 Friedman, Kendall, Taylor (DIS)

1982 Kenneth G. Wilson (RG/LGT)

1976 Richter, Ting (J/)

1969 Murray Gell-Mann (quark model)

1968 Luis Alvarez (hadrons)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the two arms of physics
The two arms of physics

Variables: what are the things that make up what we study …analysis

Dynamics: how do the variables interact and move ….synthesis

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

elementary particles variables
Elementary Particles: variables

1895: e

1935: e,p,n,,

“Who ordered that?” - Rabi

1950: e,p,n,,,,,,,,…

“Had I foreseen that, I would have gone into botany” - Fermi

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

slide10
QED

Variables are e, , , 

Dynamics is Maxwell’s dynamics with quantization: Dirac, Heisenberg, Bethe (1930s)

Theory solved in the 40’s (Feynman, Schwinger, Tomonaga)

Very successful in describing experiments

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

quantum hadron dynamics
Quantum Hadron Dynamics?

Theory of meson baryon interactions was in a mess….

Yukawa theory (1932)

1960s: S-matrix, dual resonance, Regge, string theory….

Variables were wrong, the dynamics was premature

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the eightfold way variables
The Eightfold Way (variables)
  • The “periodic table” of hadrons
  • Building block of hadrons are quarks
  • Mesons contain a quark and an anti-quark, baryons have 3 quarks
  • Masses of hadrons are predictions

Gell-Mann, Zweig, Nishijima (1953)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the eightfold way variables13
The Eightfold Way (variables)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the eightfold way variables14
The Eightfold Way (variables)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the eightfold way variables15
The Eightfold Way (variables)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the eightfold way variables16
The Eightfold Way (variables)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the era of massive confusion
The era of massive confusion

Quark search experiments failed.

Idea of confinement: quarks live only inside hadrons

Colour: Nambu, Fritzsch, Gell-Mann

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the crucial experiment
The crucial experiment

Deep inelastic scattering- the ‘Rutherford experiment’ of particle physics

First view of quarks

Friedman, Kendall, Taylor (1969)

Bjorken, Feynman

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

particles in the standard model 1990s
Particles in the Standard Model (1990s)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

quantum chromo dynamics the dynamics of quarks and gluons
Quantum Chromo-Dynamics: the dynamics ofquarks and gluons

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

screening in a plasma
Screening in a plasma

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

effective charge
Effective charge

A modification to Coulomb’s law is the same as a distance dependent charge: renormalization

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the bubbling vacuum
The bubbling vacuum

Quantum fluctuations: t < h/2

Particles can be produced from vacuum for a short time

In a quantum field theory the vacuum bubbles over with particles

Since it has mobile charges, the vacuum screens

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

charge renormalization screening in qed
Charge renormalization: screening in QED

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

anti screening in qcd
Anti-screening in QCD

Asymptotic freedom is anti-screening: the opposite of electrodynamics

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

qcd is born slac to lep
QCD is born (SLAC to LEP)

Asymptotic freedom allowed computation of deep-inelastic cross sections, predicted lepton pair production, jets, etc

…many physicists

(1970s to 1990s)

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

open problems for you
Does anti-screening in vacuum become screening in matter?

Are there new phases of matter in xxtreme conditions, like a QCD plasma?

Relativistic heavy-ion collisions and LGT…

At long distances charge grows; does confinement follow?

Are there glueballs? New 5q or 6q states?

Why is a proton so heavy?

Lattice gauge theory…

Open problems for you

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

where it all connects
Where it all connects

High temperature matter: early in the history of the universe

High density matter: in neutron stars and other supernova remnants

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the rhic at brookhaven
The RHIC at Brookhaven

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

the cray in tifr
The CRAY in TIFR

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

thank you
Thank You

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

how good is qcd
How good is QCD?

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005

how good is qcd33
How good is QCD?

Nobel 2004, Sourendu Gupta, Xavier's College, 2005