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Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) Federal Department of Agriculture PRESENTATION ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION PowerPoint Presentation
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Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) Federal Department of Agriculture PRESENTATION ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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 Regional Cassava Processing and Marketing Initiative  FIRST REGIONAL MEETING OF IFAD ROOTS & TUBERS PROJECTS 14-16 November 2007 Hotel Somatel - Douala, Cameroon. Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) Federal Department of Agriculture PRESENTATION ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION. RTEP Milestones.

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Regional Cassava Processing and Marketing InitiativeFIRST REGIONAL MEETING OF IFAD ROOTS & TUBERS PROJECTS14-16 November 2007Hotel Somatel - Douala, Cameroon

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Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP)

Federal Department of Agriculture

PRESENTATION ONCASSAVA PRODUCTION

rtep milestones
RTEP Milestones
  • 1995: RTEP formulated by FAO and appraised by WB;
  • 2000 (December) : RTEP launched;
  • 2001 (July) : RTEP declared loan effective;
  • 2002 (June): RTEP became disbursement effective;
  • 2003 (June): first deposit for project implementation.
  • Objective RTEP: to address post-harvest losses, inappropriate processing technologies and lack of marketing opportunities.
programme components
Programme Components
  • Development of Root Crop Technologies
  • Multiplication of Improved Planting Material
  • Improved Adaptive Research and Extension
  • Diversification of Processing Options
  • Programme Management and Evaluation

Cassava production (development) is executed under the first three components

development of r t crop technologies
Development of R&T Crop Technologies

Activities implemented

  • Farming system surveys,
  • On-farm testing of alternative soil,
  • Fertility maintenance options,
  • Breeding and selection of new R&T varieties,
  • Pre-release testing of new cassava varieties,
  • Reinforcement of cassava pest biological control,
  • Conduct of a pest survey.
development of r t crop technologies6
Development of R&T Crop Technologies
  • Breeding of new cassava varieties: done by NRCRI and IITA. Exchange of germplasm to broaden genetic liability and enhance incorporation of useful traits;
  • A crossing block is established annually (for hand and open pollinated seed production) for cassava flowering induction: best performing local clones are included along with best performing improved varieties.
  • Overall target: to release 4-5 varieties every two years.
  • Nominated genotypes undergo on station multi-locational testing for two years under the Nationally Coordinated Research Project (NCRP) followed by one-year on-farm multi-location testing of the most promising genotypes;
  • 4-5 multi-location tests conducted every year to integrate farmers reactions, before a technical sub-committee recommend the release of improved varieties to the National Crop Varieties Registration and Release Committee.
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Each zonal OFAR team meets annually to plan, monitor and evaluate trials and to formulate packages of production recommendations for the ADPs;
  • OFAR is implemented in four stages:
      • Diagnostic survey,
      • Experimental trials,
      • On-station and on-farm,
      • Technology transfer to farmers.
  • Each ADP runs an average 1-3 trails/annually across 10-30 farms to test new cassava varieties, alternate crop arrangements, fertilizer/pesticides applications.
  • Mass adoption and promotion through the Small Plot Adoption Technique (SPAT) on plots 10m x 10m.
  • Farmers involved in planning, designing and evaluation of the trials.
ii multiplication of improved planting materials
(ii) Multiplication of Improved Planting Materials
  • Activities:
    • Multiplication of breed stock by NRCRI,
    • Foundation seed by RTEP-SMU,
    • Certification of seed by ADPs,
    • Training (of ADP zonal seed multiplication staff in rapid multiplication techniques and multiplication plot management and of ADP Seed Quality Control Officers in the release of diseases-free and true-to-type varieties to farmers).
  • Results:
    • Adoption rate of improved varieties is 70%; new improved varieties adopted ll over Nigeria;
    • Production and productivity significantly increased.
strategies
Strategies
  • Two strategies adopted to ensure adequate supply of planting materials:
  • ADP farm direct operation and
  • Out grower schemes (individual or through producer associations -CBSPA).
  • The Outgrower Scheme: implemented under two arrangements:

(i) Individual farmers are selected by the ADPs which provides them planting materials, fertilizers and quality control while the farmers will be responsible for land preparation, weeding and harvesting. A memorandum of understanding regulate relationship between farmer and ADP;

(ii) Community based planting material producer association (CBSPA): the association is responsible for planting, fertilizer application and harvesting, while the project will be responsible for land preparation, weeding/herbicide, fertilizers, planting materials, technical trainings, provision of credit and quality control. Also in this case, a memorandum of understanding regulate relationship between CBSPAR and ADP.

performance of outgrowers
Performance of Outgrowers
  • Performance of outgrowers:
    • 76% of total ha under foundation seed;
    • 52% of total bundles foundation stocks produced;
    • 8,730ha of certified seed stocks against 4,529ha of ADP farms.
  • Problems of outgrowers
    • Conflict between project’s needs and the farmers’ desire about when to harvest;
    • Outgrowers not really accessible to ordinary farmers;
    • Some outgrowers preferred to reserve all cuttings for their own use;
    • At times, farmers not aware about multiplication plots near them where they could buy cuttings of improved planting material;
    • Planting R&T materials are heavy, bulky, difficult to transport;
    • Weak organization of the R&T market.
solution to problems of outgrowers scheme
Solution to Problems of Outgrowers Scheme

1) Incentive packages related to services such as:

  • Delivery of inputs (fertilizers);
  • Ploughing;
  • Assurance on the collection and distribution of cuttings to farmers.

2) More research efforts towards:

  • Improved varieties producing high returns to seasonal labour rather than higher dry matter content;
  • Longer (3-6 months) cuttings storage.

3) Flexible arrangements for outgrowers:

Permission granted to use crop mixes on outgrowers’ fields. This is however acceptable provided the seed superintendents and quality control officers take the supervision of outgrowers seriously and that.only recommended improved varieties are multiplied for sale to other farmers.

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4) Other Efforts

(i) Use of Farmer-to-Farmer Diffusion:

return to the use the use of SPATs as a means to encourage farmer-to-farmer distribution of existing varieties, by which farmers were given planting materials of cassava, enough to plant a 10m x 10m farm plot; when the crop matured the same quantity of cuttings was collected, and passed to another farmer. They later used the rest to plant a larger area and possibly gave some states to other farmers.

(ii) Expanded Privatization of Planting Materials Multiplication

ADPs need exploring other avenues of privatizing cassava multiplication (such as NGOs, limited liability companies etc).

way forward
Way forward
  • Focus on community seed development programme (CSDP): use more the private sector to produce Certified Seeds.

Main CSDP objectives

    • Provide cheap though good alternative sources of improved seed to farmers;
    • Demonstrate massively the potential of improved seed over and above the traditional or local sources;
    • Generate employment opportunities;
    • Hasten the rapid coverage of total land area with improved seed;
    • Enable farmers to appreciate the usefulness and the need to adopt modern technologies in farming;
    • Accelerate the pace of moving improved and bulky planting materials to farmers;
    • Increase geographic coverage of extension messages.
iii improved adaptive research extension
(iii) Improved Adaptive Research & Extension
  • The spread of improved cassava varieties and cultural practices is carried out through improved adaptive research and extension component.
  • Activities implemented:
    • Creation of On-farm Adaptive Research (OFAR) trials,
    • Establishment of demonstration plots,
    • Conduct of field days,
    • Spread of extension messages through leaflets, radio, village cinema, television,
    • Training of farmers’ extension agents and research officers.
strategy
Strategy
  • Each ADP follows the T&V system of extension. States are divided into zones, blocks and then cells of between 1,000 to 1,500 households;
  • The Village Extension Agent (VEA) is located at the cell and are supported at zonal level by Subject Matter Specialist (SMS).
  • Each cell is divided into eight sub-cells of 8-10 farmers (30% women). Each farmer manages one SPAT and should pass on extension information to 10 surrounding farmers.
  • Women-In-Agriculture (WIA) extension agents called Block Extension Agents (BEAs) are found at the block level. These BEAs are responsible for setting up one women’s group per cell. Each women’s group is supposed to host 5-6 SPATs;
  • Field problems and production recommendations are reviewed and formulated during Monthly Technology Review Meetings (MTRM) attended by scientists from research institutes and universities, the ADP Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs), adaptive research and extension and commercial services representatives;
  • After each MTRM, the SMSs’ instruct the field level extension workers at Fortnightly Training (FNT) sessions on extension messages to be transferred to contact farmers;
  • Problems encountered by farmers are fed through the system of FNTs and MTRMs to be resolved by ADP SMSs or the research institutes;
  • The VEAs carry out one or two field days in their cells each year for farmer to evaluate the technologies which have been promoted on the SPATs;
  • In each ADP the extension system is supported by radio and sometimes television broadcasts, posters, pamphlets, and mobile video/cinema units.
impact
Impact
  • Over 40 high yielding, disease free varieties released, including some targeting specifically end-products such as: starch, flour, etc;
  • Contained the incidence of mealbug and green spider mites that negatively affected cassava production in the 1970s;
  • Within a decade productivities increased from 5 to 15 tonnes/ha and production from 10 to 49 million metric tonnes.
challenges and opportunities
Challenges and Opportunities

Challenges

  • Low prices of roots and its end-products;
  • Inadequate extension service to transfer new technologies to farmers.
  • Poor agronomic practices applied by farmers;
  • Limited input availability and high cost, which both limit adoption of improved technologies.

Opportunities: Government policies on:

      • Flour import substitution; and
      • Renewable energy (use of ethanol from cassava as fuel for vehicles).