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Chapter 4 Typography Objectives (1 of 2) Differentiate among calligraphy, lettering, and typography. Gain knowledge of type definitions and nomenclature. Learn about type measurement, basic type specifications, and classifications of type. Identify parts of letters.

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Chapter 4 Typography


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objectives 1 of 2
Objectives (1 of 2)
  • Differentiate among calligraphy, lettering, and typography.
  • Gain knowledge of type definitions and nomenclature.
  • Learn about type measurement, basic type specifications, and classifications of type.
  • Identify parts of letters.
  • Pick up the basic principles of designing with type.
  • Understand the interrelated visual factors involved in typographic design.
objectives 2 of 2
Objectives (2 of 2)
  • Become familiar with three types of spacing.
  • Learn design considerations of form, direct and secondary meanings, and graphic impact.
  • Consider the relationship of type and visuals.
  • Use type creatively and expressively.
  • Acquire tips on type from esteemed professionals.
typographic definitions 1 of 3
Typographic Definitions (1 of 3)
  • Typography
    • The design of letterforms and the arrangement of them in two-dimensional space (for print) and in space and time (for digital media)
typographic definitions 2 of 3
Typographic Definitions (2 of 3)
  • Letterform
    • The particular style and form of each individual letter of our alphabet
    • Each letter of an alphabet has unique characteristics that must be preserved to retain the legibility of the symbols as representing sounds of speech.
    • Used by designers in three primary forms:
      • Calligraphy
      • Lettering
      • Type
typographic definitions 3 of 3
Typographic Definitions (3 of 3)
  • Typeface
    • The design of a single set of letterforms, numerals, and signs unified by consistent visual properties
      • These properties create the essential character, which remains recognizable even if the face is modified by design.
  • Type style
    • Modifications in a typeface that create design variety while retaining the essential visual character of the face
the type family chart
The Type Family Chart
  • By Martin Holloway
the typographic font chart
The Typographic Font Chart
  • By Martin Holloway
letterforms terms chart
Letterforms Terms Chart
  • By Martin Holloway
metal type terms chart
Metal Type Terms Chart
  • By Martin Holloway
the principles of design applied to type emphasis
The Principles of Design Applied to Type: Emphasis
  • When typographic elements are arranged according to emphasis, most often there is a focal point.
  • When creating emphasis with typography, consider:
    • Position
    • Rhythm
    • Color contrast
    • Size contrast
    • Weights of the type
    • Initial caps
    • Roman vs. italic
type alignment
Type Alignment
  • The primary type alignment options are as follows:
    • Flush left/ragged right: text that aligns on the left side and is uneven on the right side
    • Justified: text that aligns on the left and right sides
    • Flush right/ragged left: text that aligns on the right side and is uneven on the left side
    • Centered: lines of type centered on an imaginary central vertical axis
    • Asymmetrical: lines composed for asymmetrical balance — not conforming to a set, repetitive arrangement
the principles of design applied to type unity
The Principles of Design Applied to Type: Unity
  • To establish unity in a typographic design, consider:
    • Choose typefaces that complement each other.
    • Use contrasting styles, faces, and weights, rather than using similar faces.
    • Typefaces with pronounced or exaggerated design characteristics seldom mix well.
    • Avoid mixing two or more sans serif typefaces in a design.
    • Establish harmonious size relationships.
    • Determine how the size and choice of typefaces will work with the visuals.
    • Establish correspondence and alignment.
spacing
Spacing
  • The three types of spacing to control
    • Letter spacing
      • The space between letters
    • Word spacing
      • The space between words
    • Line spacing
      • The distance between lines of type
designing with type
Designing with Type
  • Consider form, direct and secondary meanings, and graphic impact.
  • Consider subtle relationship of type and visuals in a design solution.
  • Understand how type can be used creatively and expressively.
summary 1 of 2
Summary (1 of 2)
  • Typography is the design of letterforms and the arrangement of them in two-dimensional space (for print) and in space and time (for digital media).
  • For both print and digital media, visual communication professionals must consider some fundamental issues of form and structure, design, message/content, and expression.
  • Learn to differentiate among letterforms.
  • Understand how letterforms are structured as well as generated.
summary 2 of 2
Summary (2 of 2)
  • When arranging typographic elements, you should consider balance, emphasis, rhythm, unity, positive and negative space, and the manipulation of graphic space to create illusion.
  • Consider the interrelated visual factors of visual weight, position, and arrangement.
  • Consider form, direct and secondary meanings, and graphic impact.
  • Considering the subtle, precise relationship of type and visuals in a design solution is crucial to creating visual messages with impact.
  • It is essential to understand how type can be used creatively and expressively.