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Outline. What is sprawl? Problems of sprawl Coping Strategies Transit Oriented Development Smart Growth New Urbanism Critique of coping strategies. What is Sprawl?.

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outline
Outline
  • What is sprawl?
  • Problems of sprawl
  • Coping Strategies
    • Transit Oriented Development
    • Smart Growth
    • New Urbanism
  • Critique of coping strategies
what is sprawl
What is Sprawl?

Low density development on the edge of cities and towns, poorly planned, land consumptive, auto-dependent, and designed without respect to its surroundings

housing at very low density 0 5 2 dwelling units acre
Housing At Very Low Density0.5-2 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

housing at low density 2 4 dwelling units acre
Housing At Low Density2-4 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

housing at medium density 4 7 dwelling units acre
Housing At Medium Density4-7 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

housing at medium high density 7 15 dwelling units acre
Housing At Medium High Density7-15 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

housing at high density 15 25 dwelling units acre
Housing At High Density 15-25 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

housing at very high density 25 43 dwelling units acre
Housing At Very High Density25-43 Dwelling Units/Acre

Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

traits of sprawl
Traits of Sprawl
  • Unlimited outward extension of development
  • Low-density residential and commercial settlements
  • Leapfrog development
  • Fragmentation of powers over land use
  • Dominance of transportation by private automobiles
  • Segregation of types of land uses in different zones
measuring sprawl
Measuring Sprawl

Sprawl may be said to occur when the rate at which land is converted to non-agricultural or non-natural uses exceeds the rate of population growth

  • Measure: Per capita Land consumption

Baltimore’s growth, 1792-1992

problems of sprawl
Problems of Sprawl
  • Social problem
    • Alienation; poverty concentration
  • Economic problem
    • Infrastructure costs
  • Environmental problem
    • Pollution, loss of farmlands
  • Health problem
    • Obesity
slide14

Annual hours of delay per person on all travel

during peak hours of 6 to 9 a.m. and 4 to 7 p.m.

*Includes Orange and Ventura counties.

Note: Delays eased during recessionary periods due to a combination of road improvements and slower traffic growth.

Source: Texas Transportation Institute's 2003 Urban Mobility Study [from LA Times, Oct. 5, 2003]

slide15

Household spending on transportation,

by metropolitan area, during 2000-2001:

*Includes Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura counties.

**Includes Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties.

Source: Surface Transportation Policy Project analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data [from Los Angeles Times, Oct. 6, 2003]

transit oriented development
Transit Oriented Development

“Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is moderate to higher density development, located within an easy walk of a major transit stop, generally with a mix of residential, employment and shopping opportunities designed for pedestrians without excluding the auto. TOD can be new construction or redevelopment of one or more buildings whose design and orientation facilitate transit use.”

Source: Technical Advisory Committee to the Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study

transit oriented development17
Transit Oriented Development
  • Neo-Traditional, New-Urbanist development
  • Walkable community
  • Reinforces the use of public transportation
  • High density
  • Mixed housing type

Source: Report on Smart Infill, Greenbelt Alliance

Why TOD?

Provides alternatives to the consequences of

  • low-density suburban sprawl and
  • automobile- dependent land use patterns

Helps reduce the shortage of affordable housing

slide18

Benefits of TOD

TOD can lower rates of air pollution and energy consumption

TOD can help conserve resource lands and open space

TOD can play a role in economic development

Tool to help revitalize aging downtowns and declining urban neighborhoods, and to enhance tax revenues for local jurisdictions.

TOD can decrease infrastructure costs

It can help reduce overall infrastructure costs for expanding water, sewage and roads to local governments by up to 25% through more compact and infill development.

TOD can contribute to more affordable housing

It can add to the supply of affordable housing by providing lower-cost and accessible housing, and by reducing household transportation expenditures

innovations in bus service
Innovations in Bus Service

Metro RAPID, Los Angeles

  • Advanced Passenger Information

Real-time and new multi-lingual displays

  • Signal Priority System

High-quality signal communication

  • Level Boarding and Alighting

Low-floor buses to provide level platform and improve access

  • Color-Coded Buses and Stations

To share visual cues including colors and graphics themes

  • Enhanced Passenger Amenities

Streetscape improvements, improved security lighting, and surveillance

slide20
Transformation [Design Strategy]Better Use of Existing Roads & Highways Bus Rapid Transit in Center Lanes of Existing Roads
slide21
Transformation [Design Strategy]Taming the Suburban HighwayWork with large adjacent landowners; project initiated by landowner at right

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

slide22

Taming the Suburban Highway

Buildings moved up to street; landscaping & bike lanes added; parking and street grid at rear

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

taming the suburban highway mixed use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties
Taming the Suburban HighwayMixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

taming the suburban highway mixed use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties24
Taming the Suburban HighwayMixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

taming the suburban highway mixed use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties25
Taming the Suburban HighwayMixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

taming the suburban highway street trees added to median
Taming the Suburban HighwayStreet trees added to median

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

slide27
Taming the Suburban HighwayAlternative with two lanes each way for through traffic and service lane with diagonal parking

Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District CommissionCharlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

smart growth principles
Smart growth principles
  • Create Range of Housing Opportunities
  • Create Walkable Neighborhoods
  • Encourage Community Collaboration
  • Foster Communities with a Strong Sense of Place
  • Mix Land Uses
  • Preserve Open Space, Farmland, Natural Beauty and Critical Environmental Areas
  • Provide a Variety of Transportation Choices
  • Strengthen and Direct Development Towards Existing Communities
  • Take Advantage of Compact Building Design
new urbanism principles
New Urbanism Principles

Region: Metropolis, City and Town

Neighborhood, District, & Corridor

Block, Street, and Building

principles of new urbanism
Principles of New Urbanism
  • Walkability
    • Pedestrian friendly streets
  • Connectivity
    • Integrated street network
  • Mixed use and Diversity
    • Residential,commercial
    • Age, income, race
  • Mixed housing
  • Quality Physical Design
principles of new urbanism31
Principles of New Urbanism
  • Traditional Neighborhood Structure
    • Discernible center and edge
  • Increased Density
    • Compactness
  • Smart Transportation
    • Multi-modal
  • Sustainability
    • Minimal environmental impact
  • Quality of Life
new urbanist projects
New Urbanist Projects

Kentlands

Laguna West

Seaside

210 developments under construction or complete in the United States

seaside fl
Seaside, FL
  • High density
  • Picket fences
  • Paved roads
  • Small setback
kentlands md
Kentlands, MD

Market Street

Overlooking porch

High Density

san diego ca
San Diego, CA

The Village

Naval Training Center

raleigh nc
Raleigh, NC

Moore Square Museums

Magnet Middle School

playa vista ca
Playa Vista, CA

Village

Residential

Commericial

playa vista ca38
Playa Vista, CA

High Density Housing

critique of coping strategies macro
Critique of Coping Strategies (Macro)
  • Historical context of urban growth
    • Durability of physical capital
  • Sprawl not environmentally problematic
    • Agriculture is more polluting
  • Freedom of choice
    • Residential preferences
  • Is compactness really desirable?
    • U shaped infrastructure costs
    • Overcrowding; noise; incompatible uses
critique of coping strategies micro
Critique of Coping Strategies (Micro)
  • Spatial Determinism (Harvey)
    • Physical solution to social/ economic issues
  • Untenable self-containment
    • Job centers/ housing duality
    • Increase in non-work trips
  • Transit Inefficiencies
  • Weak Sense of Community
  • Social equity
    • Elitist approach; limited mixed housing
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Prospects of coping strategies
    • Control of outward movement
    • Inner-area revitalization
    • Design innovation
    • Land and natural resources preservation
    • Transportation reorientation
  • Problems of NU for controlling sprawl
    • Macro level problems
    • Micro level problems
sprawl or new urbanism
Sprawl or New Urbanism?

Mixed use Town Center

Suburban Strip

OR