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萬聖節. 主講人： Rtn. Kelly. 松江扶輪社 Rotary Club of SUNGCHIANG 圓山大飯店大廳 金梅齋 93 年 10 月 30 日（星期六）上午 10:00-11:30. October 31 st is Halloween. 萬聖節是世界上最老的節日之一，在10 月31日這天，有許多國家，如：美國,加拿大,英格蘭,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭,墨西哥,拉丁美洲,西班牙等，都會慶祝萬聖節的來臨。.
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Rotary Club of SUNGCHIANG
Halloween is one of the world’s oldest holidays, celebrated in several countries around the globe including the USA, Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, Mexico, Latin America, and Spain.
Halloween’s origins date back to the ancient
Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).
The Celtic peoples lived over 2,000 years ago
In the area that is now Ireland, the United
Kingdom, and Northern France.
For the Celtic peoples, the New Year was celebrated on November 1st of every year. This date marked the end of Summer and the beginning of Winter.
This time of year was often associated with human death.
For the Celtic peoples, the New Year was celebrated on
November 1st of every year. This date marked the end of
Summer and the beginning of Winter.
The Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred as the dead searched for the afterlife.
Thus, on the night of October 31st, they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to Earth to cause mischief and trouble.
To commemorate the event, people built huge sacred bonfires where animals and crops were sacrificed to the Gods for protection, and to help scare ghosts away.
The Celts also wore costumes to disguise themselves, in an attempt to confuse the spirits roaming the Earth.
By the A.D. 800’s, the influence of Christianity had spread into
Pope Boniface IV designated November 1st
All Saints Day, a time to honor Saints and
Martyrs. It was known as All Hallowmas.
Thus, October 31st became known as
All Hallows Eve, and eventually was
shortened to the current day title,
西元八百年時，基督教傳入塞爾特人居住的區域。當時的教宗明訂十一月一日為萬聖節All Saints Day，又稱 All Hallowmas，來紀念所有的聖人和騎士。因此，十月三十一日就成了萬聖節前夕，英文稱之All Hallows Eve，而後來人們便簡稱十月三十一日為Halloween。
2nd All Soul’s Day, a day to honor the dead.
It was celebrated with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up in
costumes as saints, angels, and devils.
Together, the three celebrations, All Hallows Eve, All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day, were called Hallowmas.
西元一千年左右，基督教訂定十一月二日為All Souls’ Day ( 萬靈節 )來紀念所有的死去的靈魂。藉著大型營火，遊行和變裝打扮成聖人，天使或惡靈的方式來慶祝。
綜合這三個節日All Hallows Eve (萬聖節前夕)，All Saints’ Day (萬聖節) 和 All Souls’ Day (萬靈節)，就叫做Hallowmas.
Halloween arrived in North America courtesy of Irish and
Scottish emigrants who brought stories of Samhain and
Hallowmas, as well as tales of ghosts and spirits with them
in the 1840’s, during the Irish Potato Famine. The holiday
flourished into what is now modern day Halloween.
Many of the traditions associated with Halloween can be traced back to the ancient festivals of Samhain and Hallowmas. Traditions include costuming, trick-or-treating, bobbing for apples, pumpkin carving, and the lighting of bonfires.
Costumes were worn by the Celts for Samhain and the Christians for All Hallows’ Eve as a disguise to confuse and/or scare away the spirits/ghosts they believed were freely roaming the Earth from possessing their souls.
Today, although we no longer believe that spirits are flying freely, modernized costumes are worn at Halloween by children going trick-or-treating and by adults seeking fun and amusement.
The modern day custom of Trick-or-Treating originated from the very old custom of “Going-a-souling” or begging for soul cakes.
Soul cakes were baked goods offered to souls of the departed.
The Christian Church encouraged the practice of the needy going from home to home gathering food (Going-a-souling) at Harvest time. Prayers for the recently deceased from the needy were exchanged with the giving family.
而窮人們對那些吝嗇不給食物的人通常會以惡作劇來懲罰他們，或是詛咒他們下一年都會厄運纏身。大部分人都認為不給糖就搗蛋是起源於惡作劇之夜和要靈魂餅乾 (going-a-souling) 的習俗。
Those not offering goods were usually punished with a trick on Halloween night or hexed with misfortune for the next year. The term “trick-or-treat” is thought to have first originated in Britain where Halloween was known as “Mischief Night” and the practice of “going-a-souling” was common.
Carved pumpkins are traditionally known as “Jack-o-lanterns.”
Traditionally, the jack-o-lantern was carved from a turnip, potato, or beet and lit with a burning candle. These lanterns represented the souls of departed loved ones and were placed in windows or set on porches to welcome the deceased.
They also served as protection from evil spirits freed from the dead on Halloween night.
In North America, turnips, potatoes, and beets were not as readily available, so the pumpkin was used and found to be a suitable replacement.
People have been making Jack-o-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man known as “Stingy Jack.”
Stingy Jack one day invited the Devil to have a drink with him. Not wanting to pay for the drink, he tricked the Devil into turning himself into a coin, and then put the Devil into his pocket next to a cross that prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form.
Jack freed the Devil after the Devil promised not to bother Jack or, should he die, claim his soul.
Eventually, when Jack did die, God would not take him into Heaven, and the Devil, who had promised not to claim Jack’s
soul, could not take him into Hell.
Thus, the Devil sent Jack’s spirit into the night with only a burning candle to light his way. Jack put the candle into a carved out turnip and has been roaming the Earth ever since.
The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as “Jack of the Lantern,” and then simply as “Jack-o-lantern.”
到小器傑克死掉後，上帝不允許他進入天堂，而魔鬼曾答應過他不會讓他下地獄，所以傑克死後哪都去不了。因此，魔鬼就讓他的靈魂漂泊在黑夜裡，只留給他一根燃燒的蠟燭來指引他．從此以後，傑克就把蠟燭放在挖空刻好的蘿蔔裡，並且一直留在人間嚇人。愛爾蘭人一開始稱之為傑克的南瓜燈籠( Jack of the Lantern)，後來簡稱為傑克南瓜燈( Jack-o-lantern)。
Modern day Halloween celebrations use many symbols to help make the holiday more festive………
Some of these include…………
Because bats only fly at night and live in tombs, caves, and abandoned churches and buildings, they are believed to be omens of evil.
They are commonly associated with witches and vampires.
It is superstition that witches and vampires can take the form of a bat.
Since the vampire bat is the only mammal that feeds on blood, they are often linked to death and occult rituals.
Witches were thought to be tellers of fortune and to cast spells, both good and bad. This frightened many because it was believed that these powers were strongest on Halloween night.
The image of a witch has greatly changed over the centuries.
Once thought of as old, wrinkled, green skinned hags, many people associate witchcraft to either evil or as being wise.
Witches and broomsticks go hand in hand. They have been associated for centuries. Often, witches are depicted riding them across the night sky with a black cat on one end.
It is believed that because
Halloween occurred during the
rainy season, women used their
broomsticks to vault over large
puddles and to sweep water out
of their paths while walking.
Thus, the two became associated.
owls ate the souls of the
dying by swooping to Earth.
Owls screeches and their
glassy stare are an omen of
death and disaster.
The owl is rarely seen during
the day and is associated with
Cats, for centuries, have been considered to be spiritual animals that have the ability to sense good and bad spirits.
Western superstitions detail that black cats are able to represent spirits or incarnated humans, thereby linking them
Black is also the color most commonly associated with evil.
Ghosts are universal symbols for the departed. Skeletons and bones are symbols of death and shortness of life.
Since Halloween’s origins lie as the festival of the dead, it seems only fitting that ghosts and skeletons would be used.
While many cultures feel that the spider and web represent
the weaving of life, in reference to Halloween, they represent dark, spooky places and haunted houses long forgotten.
Other symbols related to Halloween
include the colors black and orange,
scarecrows, the moon, vampires,
werewolves, and the wearing of