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Media Elements ITK-352 Objectives understand the basics of different media elements know how to capture different media types for inclusion in multimedia Multimedia Elements

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Media Elements

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  • understand the basics of different media elements
  • know how to capture different media types for inclusion in multimedia
multimedia elements
Multimedia Elements
  • The construction of high quality multimedia products relies upon the successful integration of a series of types of distinct data.
    • Text - Animation
    • Audio - Other
    • Video
    • Images
  • The integration of audio, video, computer graphics and text under computer control.
  • A multi-sensory experience
data types classified by the senses
Data Types -Classified by the senses
  • Sight
    • Writing, Painting, Photography
      • extension of sight over time and space
    • TV, Video-conferencing
      • extension of sight across space
percentage of cones
Percentage of Cones
  • Red (64%)
  • Green (32%)
  • Blue (4%)
The individual with normal color vision will see a 5 revealed in the dot pattern.

An individual with Red/Green (the most common) color blindness will see a 2 revealed in the dots.


Blue type on red is hard

to read. It causes eye



Red type on blue is also

hard to read.

It causes eye strain.



Green type on red is also

hard to read.

It causes eye strain.


order in which colors appears
Order in which colors appears
  • The perceived differences in depth ( chromostereopsis ) that result can slow reading speed considerably.
  • Bitmmaped / Raster
    • Monitors , (RGB)
  • Vector Graphics
  • Hybrid / Metafiles
  • Common uses of bitmap graphics include:
    • Photographic images
    • Paintings and drawings
    • Document scans
  • It simulates the colors from the orginal image that are not available in the new, reduced palette.
vector graphics29
Vector Graphics




vector graphics30
Vector Graphics
  • Common uses of vector graphics:
    • CAD/CAM packages
    • Architectural plans
    • Diagrams
    • Route planning
anti aliasing
  • A technique used on a gray-scale or color bitmap display to make diagonal edges appear smoother by setting pixels near the edge to intermediate colours according to where the edge crosses them.
image quality
Image Quality
  • The quality with which an image is displayed on a computer scene is dependent upon several factors:
    • The quality of the original image
    • The way the image was captured
    • The color depth of the image
    • The graphics format used to store it
    • The type of compression used
      • Lossy vs. Lossless
    • The graphics card on the computer
    • The quality of the computer monitor
  • the maximum number of pixels that can be displayed on a monitor, expressed as (number of horizontal pixels) x (number of vertical pixels).
    • i.e., 1024x768. The ratio of horizontal to vertical resolution is usually 4:3, the same as that of conventional television sets.
image file formats
Image File Formats
  • GIF (Compuserve)
  • JPG (Joint of Photographers Expert Group)
  • PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
  • DIBs (Device Independent Bitmaps)BMP, DIB, RLE
  • PCX (PC PaintBrush)
  • TIFF (Tagged Interchange File Format)
  • PSD (Adobe Photoshop)
cross platform formats
Cross-Platform Formats
  • DXF (Drawing Interchange File)
  • IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Standard)Most common bitmap formats on the Web
  • JPEG
  • GIF
  • PNG
senses hearing
Senses: Hearing
  • Hearing and speech
    • extension of hearing across space
      • Telephone, radio
    • extension of hearing over time
      • CDs, tapes, voice mail, telephone…
  • For sound to exist to us, three things are necessary:
    • Generation
    • Transmission
    • Perception
digital audio jargon
Digital Audio Jargon
  • Amplitude
    • indicates the volume of the sound; so the points in a waveform with the greatest amplitude sound the loudest.
  • Period
    • represents the distance between two consecutive peaks in a waveform.
  • Frequency
    • is the number of periods in one second.
audio jargon
Audio Jargon
  • Hertz (Hz)
    • A hertz is equivalent to a period. One period per second equals one hertz. One thousand periods per second equals one kilohertz (KHz).
sound volume db
Sound Volume: dB
  • Volume or loudness: (Unit of measurement: decibels, dB)
  • This is the pressure of the sound.
    • Decibels are the ratio between a reference point of a logarithmic scale and the level that is actually received.
An increase of 10 dB is twice as loud
  • Human speech is generally reproduced somewhere in the 55 to 70 dB range.
  • The upper SPL of music will typically range from 65 to 90 dB.
scale of Sound Pressure Levels (SPL).

The louder a particular sound, the higher it will be on the vertical scale.


dynamic range
Dynamic range
  • Dynamic range is the range between the softest and loudest sounds.
    • music has a much greater dynamic range than speech.

audio files
Audio Files
  • MIDI
    • (Musical Instrument Digital Interface): An industry-standard connection for computer control of musical instruments and devices. A MIDI file contains notes, timing, and instrument designations for multiple channels.
    • The file contains information about each note, including the key, channel number, duration, volume, and velocity.
audio files50
Audio Files
  • RIFF
    • (Resource Interchange File Format) Platform-independent multimedia specification published by Microsoft and others in 1990 that allows audio, image, animation, and other multimedia elements to be stored in common format.
  • WAV (Wave File Format)
  • MP3 (MPEG – 1, Audio Layer 3)
audio space requirements
Audio - Space Requirements
  • The following formula can serve to estimate audio storage needs.

(sampling rate * bits per sample)/8=bytes/sec

audio files mp3
Audio Files: MP3
  • MP3. Is the file extension for MPEG, audio layer 3.
  • Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove all superfluous information (more specifically, the redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal. The stuff the human ear doesn't hear anyway).
  • Layer 3 shrinks the original sound data from a CD (with a *bitrate of 1411.2 kilobits per one second of stereo music) by a factor of 12 (down to 112-128kbps) without sacrificing sound quality.
audio files wma
Audio Files: .WMA
  • Microsoft/WMA
    • Windows Media Audio, a Microsoft file format for encoding digital audio files similar to MP3 though can compress files at a higher rate than MP3.
    • WMA files, which use the “.wma” file extension, can be of any size compressed to match many different connection speeds, or bandwidths.
audio files aac
Audio Files: AAC
  • Advanced Audio Coding, one of the audio compression formats defined by the MPEG-2 standard.
  • AAC is sometimes referred to as MPEG-2 NBC (not backwards compatible) because it is not compatible with the MPEG-1 coding scheme.
  • AAC boasts higher quality audio reproduction than MP3 and requires 30% less data to do so.
    • Haptic interfaces (extension of touch over space)
    • Sculpture (extension of touch over time)
    • extension of smell over space and time
      • Perfume
      • Electronic Noses use sensors to detect gases.
        • The sensor array may produce a unique fingerprint of an odor.
    • Sensorama (1960)
  • Lexical
    • 'one determines for each word its definition'
  • Syntactic
    • 'the subject, action, and object of a sentence is determined'
  • Semantic
    • 'the meaning of a sentence is determined'
  • Pragmatic
    • 'the integration of the text's semantic meaning into the reader's model of self and of the world'
text standards
Text Standards
  • ISO 10646
    • In 1983 the International Standards Organization started development of ISO 10646 which is a standard for encoding characters. The aim of this was to develop a 2-byte (16-bit) character set which could deal with up to 65,536 characters.
  • Unicode
    • In 1987 Mark Davis of Apple Computers and Joe Becker and Lee Collins at Xerox PARC put forward Unicode which was to allow for 'unique, universal, and uniform character encoding.'
text acquisition
Text Acquisition
  • Keyboarding
  • Bulk text loading
    • ASCII
    • RTF (Rich Text Format)
    • SGML
    • ODA (Open Document Architecture)
    • XML
      • VoiceXML
ocr optical character recognition
OCR Optical Character Recognition
  • (1974) Ray Kurzweil produced his first reading machine for the blind
  • By 1978 the Kurzweil's reading machine was developed for data entry applications.
  • Factors to consider when examining OCR for use in your own applications include:
    • Speed of capture
    • Accuracy rates
    • Material handled
    • Customization procedures
  • OCR versus Bitmapped text
text fonts
Text -Fonts
  • Bitmapped text
    • Predefined
      • size
      • weight
text fonts66
Text - Fonts
  • Outline (vector) Fonts
    • Page Description Language (PDL)
      • PostScript
      • TrueType
    • Scalable
text guidelines
Text Guidelines
  • Headings, credits, descriptions, key points
    • Things to consider:
      • Keep it simple, Don't use jargon
      • Generally, you should use a maximum of three typefaces in a maximum of three points sizes.
      • Text should be set in appropriate formats, that is, set text flush left, set numbers flush right, avoid centered text in lists, and avoid short justified lines of text.
text guidelines68
Text Guidelines
  • For fixed-width fonts, justified lines of text can slow reading speed by 12 percent.
    • This is an example of a fixed-width fonts
    • This is an example of variable-width fonts
  • Use uppercase and lowercase characters whenever possible, that is, avoid all capital lines of text, which can also slow reading by 12 percent.
  • Words set in all capitals use up to 30 percent more space for variable-width letters and retard reading speed by 12 percent.
text guidelines69
Text Guidelines
  • Studies have shown a slightly greater legibility in serif type, but this status can easily be offset when the font size is to small.
  • Keep your text simple and non distracting.
    • Strive for clarity.
    • Avoid the first person.
    • Keep it brief. Keep the message short.