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Knowledge markets or knowledge spillovers in Canadian Human Health Biotechnology

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  1. Knowledge markets or knowledge spillovers in Canadian Human Health Biotechnology Johanne Queenton UQAM, Canada Research Chair in MOT ISRN 6th Annual Meeting, Vancouver May 15, 2004

  2. Knowledge economy Access to relations with strong intensity of knowledge (Foray, 2000) = Competitive advantage Innovation sources : Interactions between firm scientists, universities and public institutions (Powell, 1996). Key feature: Interdependence in the development of technological innovations

  3. Knowledge Spillovers Study of two forms: • Knowledge production function – codified forms of knowledge 2. Movement of people: Interactions are more geographically delimited when a bioscientist is really involved in the creation of a SBFs (Audretsch & Stephan, 1996)

  4. Localised Knowledge Spillovers « Knowledge spillovers geographically delimited allowing near important knowledge sources to introduce more rapidly innovations than firms located elsewhere » (Breschi & Lissoni, 2001).

  5. Knowledge spillovers vs knowledge markets « Pure knowledge externalities do not applied in biotechnology, it is more and more market and non-market transactions » (Zucker et al., 1998). « More and more contractual and proprietary links in competitive markets » (Zucker et al., 1998)

  6. 4 observations • Geographical proximity researchers networks/SBFs • + Knowledge markets, - pure knowledge spillovers • Interest for knowledge transfer role of « Star Scientists » • Study of their SBFs relations not very elaborated

  7. Two questions • Types of relationships between bioscientists and SBFs • Geographical proximity of bioscientists and SBFs

  8. Research • Determination of the nature of innovation activities in Canadian biotechnology agglomerations – Specific types of links of bioscientists with SBFs • 430 Canadian researchers (inventors, co-inventors & authors, co-authors of scientific publications and discoveries of genetic sequences) - 2 typologies • 151 Canadian SBFs having patents and patent citations

  9. Data Collection • Canadian SBFs assignees patents (USPTO, CIPO, EPO) inventory and identification of inventors and co-inventors • Inventors and co-inventors affiliation (SBFs, PRIs, or universities) • Genetic sequences discoveries inventory (1990-2002, GenBank) • Bio-scientists publications enumeration (SCI, MedLine, Derwent Biotechnology Abstracts)

  10. Data Collection Database on Canadian SBFs in human health: Sampling with assignees patents Goal: Relate knowledge flows within innovation systems and biotechnology clusters Sources: Canadian Biotech. Directory 2001,2002, B2B Industry Guide - Contact Canada, Canadian Biotech. Firms Annual Reports, SBFs Web Sites, Strategis – Industry Canada, Statistics Canada

  11. 2 typologies of researchers in Biotechnology

  12. Links of bio-scientists with Canadian SBFs 3 types of involved researchers in economic development of biotechnology: • Scientist with a simple affiliation to a SBFs (member of the board); • Connected scientist: Linked to a SBF by invention or co-invention of a patent ; • Scientist with double affiliations: affiliated to a SBF and to a university or a PRI

  13. Distribution of the studied population of Canadian SBFs by CMAs in 2002

  14. Distribution of the studied population of Canadian bioscientists by CMA in 2002

  15. Bioscientists U.S. Patents by Canadian CMAs in 2002

  16. Bioscientists publications by Canadian CMAs in 2002

  17. Bioscientists publications by year in Canadian CMAs in 2002

  18. Bioscientists discoveries of genetic sequences by Canadian CMAs in 2002

  19. Distribution of Canadian Bioscientists SBFs links by CMAs in 2002

  20. Distribution of Canadian bioscientists according to specific profiles by CMAs in 2002

  21. Bioscientists Specific Profiles by Canadian CMAs in 2002

  22. Discussion Type of externality in biotechnology: + than just knowledge spillovers , + and + market and non-market transactions Among the studied population: • 54% of Canadian bioscientists with patents or publications are linked to SBFs; • 37% are affiliated to SBFs (direction, founders); • 9% wear two hats (direction & university professors)

  23. Discussion Observations • Agglomeration phenomenon around great urban areas • Importance of geographical proximity of affiliated and linked Bio-scientists • Affiliation phenomenon = measure of relational intensity researchers/SBFs

  24. Conclusion Measures of 2 I (innovation & interdependence) Innovation: Canadian SBFs Patents Interdependence: interaction of scientific & technological development, entrepreneurship – central in biotechnology

  25. Conclusion In summary, Involved stakeholders - Connections Contractactual Relationships or proprietary links Challenges in competitive markets

  26. Future research • Superstars & Stars affiliation dynamic in other countries • Study of the percentage of academic Superstars & Stars having patents and no links with Canadian SBFs

  27. Research: Definition of researchers categories Star Scientists Typology Bio-Scientists Typology

  28. Discussion