I hear...and I forgetI see...and I rememberI do...and I understand Chinese Proverb
Learning with StyleJanuary 3, 2005 Maria Andersen, Tom Donahue, Jenny Klingenberg , and Diane Krasnewich http://www.alsi.net/Learning/Styles.htm
Teaching/Learning Styles • The Establishment Shot • Sequential Learners • Global Learners • Business Graphs • Teaching Art • Demand creativity and exploration • Guide the student step by step
Goals • Become better teachers • Understand how the intellect functions • Understand our own learning style and those of our students • Apply this understanding to our teaching methodology
Scott’s Theory • Success teaching accounting online • In identical classes and exam • Online students did better on exams • Article describing the outcome: http://www.alsi.net/Weblearning.htm • Similar success teaching music online
Scott’s Theory • The more you do to help students learn, the less they learn. • Tom’s Corollary: The more students accept responsibility for their own learning and succeed on their own, the more they learn.
Questions • How does the brain work? • What is intelligence? • How can I use Bloom's Taxonomy? • What are learning styles? • What is my learning style? • How can I use learning style concepts?
Topics • Brain function and hemispheric dominance • Theories of intelligence • Bloom's taxonomy • Learning styles • Personality styles • Index of Learning Styles (ILS) • Tomorrow: Application of the ILS
The Triune Brain • Reptilian Brain • Limbic Brain • Neocortex
Reasoning Logical Mathematical Verbal dominates right brain Mystical Musical Creative Visual-pictorial submissive to the left brain Brain Hemispheres
Teaching To Both Sides • What teaching methods do you use for • a student who is left brain dominant? • a student who is right brain dominant?
What Exactly is Intelligence? • Psychometric/Statistical Approach • Information Processing Approach • Piagetian Approach • Sternberg's Triarchic Approach • Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Approach • Ceci's Bioecological Approach
Pioneers • Thorndike, Binet, Terman • Military needs of WWI • Verbal and Mathematical (IQ) • Aptitude vs. Ability • Global intelligence (g factor) • Learning "disabilities"
Thurstone in the 1930s • Verbal Comprehension • Word fluency • Number • Space • Associative Memory • Perceptual Speed • Reasoning:
Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning - students • Deductive Reasoning – teachers • (sequential vs. global learning style)
Comparative Psychologists • Field dependent people • Field independent people
Piaget • Sensory-motor • Pre Operational • Concrete Operational (7-11 years). Characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume. Intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). • Formal Operational Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries attain formal operational thought; many people do not think formally during adulthood
Formal Operational Thinking How can you develop Formal Operational Thinking habits?
Formal Operational Thinking • Construction • Bridging • Metacognition • Cognitive conflict • Analogies
theoretical intelligence practical intelligence productive intelligence. analytical(or componential) practical(or contextual) creative(or experiential). Aristotle and Sternberg
Gardner Multiple Intelligences • Interpersonal aptitudefor working with others • Logical/mathematical aptitudefor math, logic, deduction • Spatial/visual aptitude for picturing, seeing • Musical aptitude for musical expression • Linguistic/verbal aptitudefor the written/spoken word • Intrapersonal aptitude for working alone • Bodily/kinesthetic aptitudefor using your physical self
Ceci's Bioecological Theory of Intelligence • Nature vs. Nurture • Results from a conjunction of cognitive processes • Assessment will depend on the context and domain that is measured • Four types of context (physical, social, mental, and historical) greatly influence how and what abilities are acquired and how those abilities are expressed
Age and Intellect • According to Labouvie-vief (1986) Older adults do poorly on measures of formal reasoning ability, but this is because they approach problems differently. • Older adults tend to be more pragmatic, more attuned to social and economic realities, so abstract questions don't seem as meaningful or important.
Kay’s Needlepoint Old Age and Cunning Will Overcome Youth and Ambition Every time!
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 6. Evaluation5. Synthesis 4. Analysis3. Application2. Comprehension1. Knowledge
Learning Styles • Visual intake by seeing • Auditory intake by hearing • Kinesthetic intake by doing, touching Some theorists add read-write to these three style preferences.
EXAMPLE:The 4MAT system • Type 1: Innovative Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning. They need to have reasons for learning--ideally, reasons that connect new information with personal experience and establish that information's usefulness in daily life. Some of the many instructional modes effective with this learner type are cooperative learning, brainstorming, and integration of content areas (e.g., science with social studies, writing with the arts, etc.). • Type 2: Analytic Learners are primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes. They are capable of learning effectively from lectures, and enjoy independent research, analysis of data, and hearing what "the experts" have to say. • Type 3: Common Sense Learners are primarily interested in how things work; they want to "get in and try it." Concrete, experiential learning activities work best for them--using manipulatives, hands-on tasks, kinesthetic experience, etc. • Type 4: Dynamic Learners are primarily interested in self-directed discovery. They rely heavily on their own intuition, and seek to teach both themselves and others. Any type of independent study is effective for these learners. They also enjoy simulations, role play, and games.
Myers Briggs’ Type Indicator (MBTI) • Introvert – Extravert • Sensing-Intuitive • Thinking-Feeling • Judging-Perceptive
MISMATCH • Visual: most people in our culture. • Verbal: lectures, texts, equations, chalkboard, overhead, PowerPoint, etc.
MISMATCH • Deductive teaching is quick and easy, but • although it appears straight forward and easy for the teacher • it is confusing and difficult for the student. • Most students think and learn inductively.
MISMATCH • If you teach in your own preferred style, people like you are likely to learn. • If you teach in multiple styles, everyone is more likely to learn more easily.
MISMATCH • Most curricula, textbooks, teaching techniques, and teachers are sequential. • Global learners make good researchers, systems analysts, and creative problem solvers if they make it through school.
Homework • List five learning styles • Describe an extreme example of each style. • Design a strategy to facilitate a learner that prefers each style
Summary Tips • Give students the global view or goal at the beginning. • Teach inductively (step by step) and encourage students to reason deductively. • Ask questions and devise assignments that cause students to be field-independent. • Use the Socratic Method so students respond with their own dominant learning style. • Appeal to all the senses in your teaching. • Plan for active learning. The most prominent learning mode is through doing. • Put students into situations where they develop formal abstract reasoning capacities (e.g., use construction, bridging, metacognition, cognitive conflict, analogies, etc.) • Take pains to use the nondominant side of your brain in your teaching methodology • Devise lesson plans that use the opposite of your learning style preference (students who have your learning style will catch on easily it those who do not that are likely to have trouble in your class.) • Vary assignments between visual, auditory, kinesthetic and read-write. • Use visual approaches rather than lectures, equations, chalkboard, PowerPoint, etc. • Use course activities that address each of the different learning styles.