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History of Fish Health Management. Fish Health Management: Management practices designed to prevent fish disease episodes in confined or free ranging fish populations. Aquaculture:

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

History of Fish Health Management

  • Fish Health Management:
    • Management practices designed to prevent fish disease episodes in confined or free ranging fish populations.
  • Aquaculture:
    • The art and science of rearing aquatic organisms (finfish, shellfish, aquatic reptiles, amphibians, and plants) under controlled conditions.
slide2

History of Fish Health Management

  • The occurrence of disease in fish was known prior to 1900’s but was of no practical significance
  • Advancement in knowledge is directly related to development of intensive aquaculture
  • North America – development associated with AFS
  • Developed separately from health sciences of other animal groups
slide3

History of Fish Health Management

  • Requires much different approach than terrestrial animals
  • Environmental factors (Aquatic)
  • Must have knowledge of environment and animal to effectively manage around/diagnose disease
slide4

History of Fish Health Management

  • Early reports related to fish disease (very little)
    • Aristotle (330 BC)
      • Discussed a crustacean parasite of tuna and swordfish
    • Lake Geneva Switzerland (1867)
      • Reports of disease (typhus) in fish
      • Yellow discharge from vent (probably due to lack of food)
slide5

History of Fish Health

  • - Disease in Salmon and Eels (1868)
    • “Pestis salmonum” or “Pestis rubra anguillarum”
  • - Disease now known as vibriosis
  • Furunculosis (1896)
    • Cultured trout in Germany
    • “Bacterium salmonicida”
    • First referenced in US in 1902
      • Very serious disease
slide6

History of Fish Health

  • Furunculosis committee (1928) – Great Britain
    • Set up to help combat disease
    • Increased interest in other diseases of fish
    • Made people aware – Research began to investigate pathological changes in fish due to disease (1930’s to 1950’s)
      • Disease agent characterization
      • Most research done as a hobby not profession
slide7

History of Fish Health

  • Fish culturists
    • Became aware of the relationship to fish health and stocking in troughs, raceways and ponds
    • Not all diseases were infectious
    • Began to disinfect equipment
    • Was a learning process
  • Toxic substances
    • Advent of insecticides/herbicides
    • Causes fish health and environmental problems
slide8

History of Fish Health

  • 1947 to 1960
    • Rapid progress
    • Advances in nutrition
    • Development of antibiotic/chemical therapy for fish disease control
    • better disinfectants
  • Viral diseases of fish discovered
    • IPN (1960)
    • implications for control/spread of pathogens
slide9

History of Fish Health

  • Fish importation/transportation (’60s and ’70s)
    • Moved fish and eggs everywhere
    • Fish health specialists advocated control of the movements of fish/fish eggs
  • AFS
    • formed Fish Disease Committee (FDC) in 1964 - 1972
    • developed to examine disease problems among fish
slide10

History of Fish Health

  • FDC
    • promoted restrictions fish movement
    • developed USFWS Title 50 – this restricted movement of certain food or sport fishes (1969)
    • Fish movement now only allowed for certified pathogen free fish (Board certified fish pathologists)
    • Ornamental fish still remain free of such restrictions
  • FDC replaced by Fish Health Section of AFS in 1972
slide11

History of Fish Health

  • Current Status
    • made great progress
    • still much to do to bring up to the level of knowledge for other animals
  • Future needs
    • more work needed in control of disease in aquaculture and for wild populations
    • research on Epizootiology
    • more work on pathological processes
    • fish immunology – disease prevention
    • nutrition and genetics
    • disease diagnostics