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Fish Health Management. GOALS : Production of healthy, high quality fish. Principles of Health Maintenance. Maintain conditions which are designed to optimize growth, feed conversion, reproduction and survival Intensive aquaculture – Enhance natural resistance . Maintaining Health.

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fish health management
Fish Health Management
  • GOALS :
    • Production of healthy, high quality fish
principles of health maintenance
Principles of Health Maintenance
  • Maintain conditions which are designed to optimize growth, feed conversion, reproduction and survival
  • Intensive aquaculture –
  • Enhance natural resistance
maintaining health
Maintaining Health
  • Inverse relationship between environmental quality and disease status of fish
  • Changes occur over time (type of system)
  • Emphasis of Health management:
    • Physical features of facility
    • Use of genetically improved fish
    • “SPF” stocks
    • Environmental control
    • Prophylactic/preventative therapy
    • Feed quality and quantity
stress
Stress
  • Adverse situation that affects the well-being of individual animals
stress related disease
Stress related disease
  • Environmental associated
  • Microbial diseases
    • Decreased resistance to pathogens
    • Endemic pathogens
location of site
Location of site
  • Soil, water and fish species must be compatible
  • Chose site properly
    • Pond aquaculture
    • Soil characteristics
    • Drainage
avoiding exposure
Avoiding exposure
  • Best method to control infectious disease
    • Water is effective at delivering pathogens to fish (endemic)
avoiding exposure cont
Avoiding exposure (cont.)
  • U.S.: Title 50
    • Other countries?
  • Quarantine
    • Isolate stocks for a predetermined period before contact with resident fish
  • Eradication of Stocks
    • Last resort!
    • Is it worth it?
    • Can you manage around it without introducing disease to area
avoiding exposure cont9
Avoiding exposure (cont.)
  • Example:
    • VHSV (1989) Washington
      • Destroyed adults that were found to have virus
      • Destroyed juveniles
    • Great lakes (lake trout) Epidermal epitheliotropic disease (herpesvirus)
      • Destroyed fish and disinfected contaminated facilities
      • Appears to have worked
    • BKD (Wyoming) (1990)
      • Destruction of RBT, lake, CTT, and BrT brood stock
      • Based on highly sensitive detection technique (ELISA)
      • No evidence for disease
      • “Was the cost and consequence greater than the value of what was saved?”
exposing dose
Exposing Dose
  • Once pathogen load increases (due to poor resistance) = DISEASE
extent of contact
Extent of contact
  • Infection vs Disease?
    • Facultative –
    • Obligate – require host to complete life cycle
      • Viruses, some bacteria, and few parasites
    • Route of transmission
    • Carriers
protection through segregation
Protection through segregation
  • Young fish/newly hatched fish
  • Fingerlings
    • Immunity increasing
  • Growout
  • Approaching market/release size
    • Very resistant to disease
    • Can survive in poorest water quality
addition of new fish
Addition of new fish
  • Should take needed precautions when adding new fish to existing stocks
  • Home aquaria or large facilities
breeding and culling
Breeding and Culling
  • Important in the development of domesticated stocks that perform well
  • Improve by selecting for desired traits
  • Future possibilities (genetic engineering)
    • Gene manipulation
    • Hybridization/transgenic
eradication prevention control
Eradication/prevention/control
  • Eradication:
  • Prevention:
  • Control: Reduction of problem to an economically/biologically manageable level
anticipating problems
Anticipating problems
  • Good health records for each pond
  • Water quality/quantity
  • Stay on top of things!!
fish health monitoring
Fish Health Monitoring
  • Early diagnosis
    • Know what “normal” is!
question
Question?

You are in charge of fish health monitoring at an aquaculture facility.

During morning rounds you notice that a first use pond containing RBT (50g/fish) is having some problems. Fish appear lethargic, and some dark fish are observed.

  • What possible problems may be causing this?
  • How would you narrow the possibilities down?
  • You suspect the problem to be disease related, what would you do?