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History of Management. The Evolution of Management Thought. History of Management. Ancient examples of good management Medieval Example of assembly line Industrial Revolution prompts study of Management and writings concerning how to manage effectively and efficiently. (Trans. 6).

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history of management

History of Management

The Evolution of Management Thought

history of management1

History of Management

Ancient examples of good management

Medieval Example of assembly line

Industrial Revolution prompts study of Management and writings concerning how to manage effectively and efficiently

trans 6
(Trans. 6)

The Practice of Management has gone on through history but formal study and writing has mainly taken place in the last 100 years.

  • Information overload is where we’re at now
  • Interdisciplinary
  • No universally accepted approach
an early approach to management is the
An early approach to Management is the

The Universal Process Approach or Administrative Management Approach

  • Henri Fayol’s Universal Management Process
  • Development of principles of Management
  • Lessons from the Universal Process Approach
the universal process approach administrative management approach
THE UNIVERSAL PROCESS APPROACH – Administrative Management Approach

Universal process approach: The administration of all organizations, public or private or large or small, requires the same rational process.

universal functions
Universal Functions

Henri Fayol’s Five Universal Functions (also called processes ) of Management--POC3

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Command
  • Coordination
  • Control
administrative approach henri fayol s five universal functions of management poc 3
Administrative Approach Henri Fayol’s Five Universal Functions of Management--POC3
  • Look at book’s functions of management - they are similar to the universal functions of Fayol’s
  • Functions can be used by all managers non-profit, government, profit making
fayol summarized principles of management in 1916
Fayol summarized Principles of Management in 1916.
  • Can you come up with them on your own?
  • How many individuals should directly manage one worker?
  • How much authority should you give individuals relative to their responsibility? Should lower level workers directly interact with individuals in different functional areas?
ii scientific approach
II. Scientific Approach
  • Started in late 1800’s and early 1900’s.
  • Frederic Taylor and scientific management
  • Early followers of Taylor
  • Later followers are from Quality movement
frederick w taylor s scientific management an operational approach

Scientific management: “that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning.”

frederick w taylor s scientific management continued

Taylor’s Scientific Management Contributions

  • Standardization (work methods, machine settings
  • Time and task study (Science of Shoveling)
  • Systematic selection and training (pretty rudimentary but somewhat unusual at time)
  • Pay incentives (piece rate)
early followers of fred taylor
Early followers of Fred Taylor
  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (12 children) came up with time and motion studies (therbligs).
  • Henry Gantt (Gantt chart and work scheduling) also supported a minimum wage with bonuses.
scientific approach followed later by quality advocates
Scientific approach followed LATER by QUALITY ADVOCATES
  • W. Edwards Deming -- American behind Japan’s quality revolution based on statistical quality control, employee participation, and continuous improvement
  • Joseph M. Juran -- quality improvement through teamwork, partnerships with suppliers, brainstorming, and Pareto analysis (80/20 principle)


  • Armand V. Feigenbaum -- total quality control; customer determines quality
  • Philip B. Crosby -- zero defects; “do it right the first time”
    • Demonstrated how much defects cost.
      • Lost customers, wasted materials and labor, greater costs of servicing items produced
iii the human resources approach
III. The Human Resources Approach
  • Focuses in on organized activity that is related to how people behave as individuals and work groups. (soc, psch, soc-psy, mgmt)
  • Human Relations Movement - developed to make working better for workers - less destructive, more motivating, and more satisfying
justification for human resources movement and behavioral approach
Justification for Human Resources’ Movement and Behavioral Approach
  • Threats of Unions
  • Industrial Humanism
    • Mary Parker Follett (need to see employees as having emotions, attitudes, beliefs, habits, feelings-- need to motivate workers.
  • Hawthorne Experiment (1930’s)
    • Elton Mayo (1949)
mcgregor s theory y
  • 1960 - Human side of enterprise
behavioral approach continued mcgregor s theory y
Behavioral Approach ContinuedMcGREGOR’S THEORY Y

Some Modern Assumptions about People

1. Work is a natural activity, like play or rest.

2. People are capable of self-direction and self-control if they are committed to objectives.

3. People will become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so.

mcgregor s theory y continued
McGREGOR’S THEORY Y(continued)

4. The average person can learn to both accept and seek responsibility.

5. Many people in the general population have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity.

iv the systems approach

System:a collection of parts operating interdependently to achieve a common purpose.

General systems theory: an interdisciplinary area of study based on the assumption that everything is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement.

IV. Systems Approach
  • Chester I. Barnard’s Early Systems Perspective (Book Fcts. Of Executive.
  • General Systems Theory
  • New Directions: Organizational Learning and Chaos Theory
  • Lessons from the Systems Approach use of open versus closed systems, exchange theory
the systems approach continued

“Functions of Executive” --- This 1938 book stated that all organizations are cooperative systems whose elements must have a willingness to serve, have a common purpose, and must communicate to work together

the systems approach continued1

Closed system:a self-sufficient entity.

Open system: an entity that depends on the surrounding environment for survival.

Exchange Theory:

the systems approach continued2

For Discussion:

1. What role does open-system thinking play in your life?

2. Why should managers view modern organization as open systems?

v contingency approach
V. Contingency Approach”
  • Contingency approach is similar to systems approach except management scholars realized it is impossible to understand everything in system so they propose to just study major contingencies of system. Trans 9
v contingency approach1
V. Contingency Approach
  • Contingency approach is an effort to determine through research which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in what situation.
excellence approach
Excellence Approach

Attributes of Excellence: A Modern Unconventional Approach

  • Eight Attributes of Excellence in large companies studied
  • A Critical Appraisal of the Excellence Approach
  • Lessons from the Excellence Approach
  • Peters and Waterman is unconventional Approach
peters and waterman s eight attributes of excellence

1. A bias for action

2. Close to the customer

3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship

4. Productivity through people

peters and waterman s eight attributes of excellence continued

5. Hands-on, value driven

6. Stick to the knitting

7. Simple form, lean staff

8. Simultaneous loose-tight properties

excellence approachmay be mbbs
Excellence approachmay be MBBS

Joke about book “One Minute Manager” asks what do you do the other 59 minutes.

MBBS syndrome - Management By Best Seller-- Companies using MBBS approach may be unfocused and have:

  • Weak culture
  • Insecure incompetent
  • Strong top down control
  • Consultants inexperienced
  • Unwillingness to expend long-term effort
how to avoid the quick fix mentality in management

1. Remain current.

2. Look for scientific support.

3. Experiment with new concepts.

4. Be skeptical and analyze apparently simple solutions.

5. Study linkages between current action and future results.