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HISTORY - FRP Fiber Reinforced Materials. Straw in Clay (Brick, Roof, Walls) Glass Fibers in Concrete Glass Fibers in Polymer. HISTORY - FRP POST WW-II APPLICATIONS. Boat Hulls Radomes Minesweeping Vessels Bath Tubs Covers. HS, CR, LW - New Developments

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history frp fiber reinforced materials
HISTORY - FRPFiber Reinforced Materials
  • Straw in Clay (Brick, Roof, Walls)
  • Glass Fibers in Concrete
  • Glass Fibers in Polymer
history frp post ww ii applications
HISTORY - FRPPOST WW-II APPLICATIONS
  • Boat Hulls
  • Radomes
  • Minesweeping Vessels
  • Bath Tubs
  • Covers

HS, CR, LW - New Developments

in Filament Winding and Pultrusion

history frp post ww ii applications 2
HISTORY - FRPPOST WW-II APPLICATIONS-2
  • Pressure Vessels
  • Submarine Parts
  • Rocket Shells
  • Aircraft Components
  • Automobile Bodies & Parts
history frp post ww ii domestic applications
HISTORY - FRPPOST WW-II DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS
  • Bath Tubs
  • Covers
  • Railings
  • Housing Components
  • Architectural Components
  • Ladders
  • Electrical Equipment
history frp post ww ii recreational uses
HISTORY - FRPPOST WW-II RECREATIONAL USES
  • Fishing Rods
  • Tennis Rackets
  • Ski Equipment
  • Golf Clubs
  • Recreation Boats
  • Skates
frp consumption in million pounds
FRP CONSUMPTION(IN MILLION POUNDS)

Source: SPI CI, April 99

frp civil structures current field activities
FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURESCURRENT FIELD ACTIVITIES
  • Pedestrian Bridges
  • Highway Bridges
  • Seismic Retrofit Columns
  • Bridge Strengthening
  • Bridge Repairs
frp technology characteristics
FRP TECHNOLOGYCHARACTERISTICS
  • High Strength
  • High Resistance to Corrosion and Chemical
  • High Resistance to Elevated Temperature
  • High Resistance to Abrasion
  • Toughness
  • Fatigue
  • Light Weight
frp technology advantages
FRP TECHNOLOGYADVANTAGES
  • Ease in Fabrication, Manufacturing, Handling, and Erection
  • Year-Round Construction
  • Short Project Time Delivery
  • High Performance
  • Durability (Jury Still Out)
  • Excellent Strength-to-Weight Ratio
frp technology disadvantages 1
FRP TECHNOLOGYDISADVANTAGES -1
  • High First Cost
  • Creep and Shrinkage
  • Potential for Environmental Degradation (Alkalis’ Attack, UV Radiation Exposure, Moisture Absorption, etc.)
  • Consistency of Material Properties
frp technology disadvantages 2
FRP TECHNOLOGYDISADVANTAGES - 2
  • Global and Local Buckling
  • Aerodynamic Instability With Lightweight
  • Requires Highly Trained Specialists
  • Lack of Standards and Design Guides
  • Limited Joining and Connection Technology (Adhesive joints, fasteners)
frp technology public concerns
FRP TECHNOLOGYPUBLIC CONCERNS
  • Fire/Flame Resistance
  • Smoke Toxicity
  • Fuel Spills
  • Vandalism/Theft
  • Inspectibility
  • Repairability
what is frp composites components
WHAT IS FRP COMPOSITESCOMPONENTS
  • Fiber Reinforcement
  • Resin Matrix

***(Fiber-Matrix Interphases)***

  • Fillers
  • Additives
frp technology mechanical properties
FRP TECHNOLOGYMECHANICAL PROPERTIES
  • Fiber Types
  • Fiber Orientations
  • Fiber Architecture
  • Fiber Volume (30-70%)
frp technology fiber types
FRP TECHNOLOGYFIBER TYPES
  • Glass
  • Aramid
  • Carbon (Graphite)
  • Boron
  • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (Available in Japan)
frp technology fiber oreientation
FRP TECHNOLOGYFIBER OREIENTATION
  • 0 Degree (Parallel - Warp)
  • 90 Degrees (Transverse - Weft)
  • Between 0 and 90 Degrees (Biased)
  • (e.g. 0/45/90/-45/0)
frp technology fiber architecture
FRP TECHNOLOGYFIBER ARCHITECTURE
  • Braiding (2D & 3D)
  • Knitting
  • Weaving
  • Stitched
  • Chopped
frp technology carbon fiber
FRP TECHNOLOGYCARBON FIBER
  • Three Polymer Precursors: *Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) *Rayon *Pitch
  • Anisotropic Materials
  • Linear Elastic to Failure
  • Failure by Rupture
frp technology aramid fiber
FRP TECHNOLOGYARAMID FIBER
  • Aromatic Polyamides
  • Kevlar 29
  • Kevlar 49
  • Anisotropic Materials
  • Linear Elastic to Failure
  • Failure by Rapture
frp typical properties
FRP -TYPICAL PROPERTIES

Source: Tonen Energy Corp

frp bridge technology fiber properties
FRP BRIDGE TECHNOLOGYFIBER PROPERTIES

Carbon (600 ksi)

4

Aramid (500 ksi)

3

E-glass (350 ksi)

fiber stress (Gpa)

2

1

1

2

3

4

fiber strain (%)

frp technology resin system
FRP TECHNOLOGYRESIN SYSTEM
  • Thermoplastics (melts when heated, solidifies when cooled, no permanent curing)
  • Thermosets(cures permanently by irreversible cross linking at elevated temp.)
frp technology resin formulations
FRP TECHNOLOGYRESIN FORMULATIONS
  • Viscosity
  • Reactivity
  • Resiliency
  • High Deflection Temperature (HDT)
frp technology resin types
FRP TECHNOLOGYRESIN TYPES
  • Unsaturated Polyesters
  • Epoxies
  • Vinyl Esters
  • Polyurethanes
  • Phenolics
frp resin system unsaturated polyesters 1
FRP - RESIN SYSTEMUNSATURATED POLYESTERS - 1
  • 75% Resins Used in USA
  • Condensation Polymerization of Dicarboxylic Acids & Dihydric Alcohols
  • Contains Maleic Anhydride or Fumaric Acid
frp resin system unsaturated polyesters 2
FRP - RESIN SYSTEMUNSATURATED POLYESTERS - 2
  • Dimensional Stability
  • Affordable Cost
  • Ease in Handling, Processing, & Manufacturing
  • High Corrosion Resistant & Fire Retardants
  • Best Value for Performance & Strength
frp resin system epoxies
FRP - RESIN SYSTEMEPOXIES
  • Glycidyl Ethers and Amines
  • Customized Properties
  • Limited Workability
  • Sensitive to Curing Agents
  • High Performance
  • High First Cost
frp resin system vinyl esters
FRP - RESIN SYSTEMVINYL ESTERS
  • Good Workability
  • Fast Curing
  • High Performance
  • Toughness
  • Excellent Corrosion Resistance
frp resin system polyurethanes
FRP - RESIN SYSTEMPOLYURETHANES
  • Polyisocyanate & Polyol
  • Reaction or Reinforced Injection Molding Process
  • High Performance
  • Toughness
  • Excellent Corrosion Resistence
frp resin system phenolics
FRP - RESIN SYSTEM PHENOLICS
  • Phenols & Formaldehyde
  • Resole - Alkaline (F/P > 1.0) (Cured by Heat)
  • Novolac - Acidic (F/P < 1.0) (Cured by Chemical Reaction)
  • Resistance to High Temperature
  • Good Thermal Stability
  • Low Smoke Generation
frp technology fillers
FRP TECHNOLOGY FILLERS
  • Control Composites’ Cost
  • Improved Mechanical Properties
  • Improved Chemical Properties
  • Reduced Creep & Shrinkage
  • Low Tensile Strength
  • Fire Retardant & Chemical Resistant
frp technology filler types
FRP TECHNOLOGYFILLER TYPES
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Kaolin
  • Alumina Trihydrate
  • Mica Feldspar
  • Wollastonite
  • Silica, Talc, Glass
frp technology additives
FRP TECHNOLOGYADDITIVES
  • Improved Material Properties
  • Aesthetics
  • Enhanced Workability
  • Improved Performance
frp technology additive types
FRP TECHNOLOGYADDITIVE TYPES
  • Catalysts
  • Promoters
  • Inhibitors
  • Coloring Dyes
  • Releasing Agents
  • Antistatic Agents
  • Foaming Agents
frp technology smart materials
FRP TECHNOLOGYSMART MATERIALS
  • Innovative Design and Application
  • Customized Product for High Performance
  • Versatility
  • Complex Design Process
  • Materials, Processing, Configurations
frp design features
FRP - DESIGN FEATURES
  • Avoid Abrupt Thickness Change
  • Take Advantage of Geometric Shapes
  • Take Advantage of Hybrid System
  • Use Bonded Assemblies & Joints
  • Provide Good Details on Connections
frp design avoid abrupt thickness
FRP - DESIGNAVOID ABRUPT THICKNESS
  • Inefficient By Thickness
  • Avoid Stress Risers
  • Consider Stress Flow
  • Consider Load Paths
  • Understand Structural Behavior
frp design features39
FRP - DESIGN FEATURES
  • Avoid Abrupt Thickness Change
  • Take Advantage of Geometric Shapes
  • Take Advantage of Hybrid System
  • Use Bonded Assemblies & Joints
  • Provide Good Details on Connections
frp design geometrical shapes
FRP - DESIGNGEOMETRICAL SHAPES
  • Low Stresses
  • Optimize Design - Balance Criteria (Stress, Deflection, and Stability)
  • Use Flanges, Ribs, Stiffeners
  • Use Honeycomb or Box Cells, Tubes
  • Proportioning and Orienting Cells
frp design features41
FRP - DESIGN FEATURES
  • Avoid Abrupt Thickness Change
  • Take Advantage of Geometric Shapes
  • Take Advantage of Hybrid System
  • Use Bonded Assemblies & Joints
  • Provide Good Details on Connections
frp design hybrid systems
FRP - DESIGNHYBRID SYSTEMS
  • High Strength in Composites
  • High Stiffness in Conventional Materials
  • Concrete Filled Carbon Shells
  • Reinforced Timber Beams
  • PS Tendons, Rods, Bars, Laminates
  • Account for Material Compatibility
frp design features43
FRP - DESIGN FEATURES
  • Avoid Abrupt Thickness Change
  • Take Advantage of Geometric Shapes
  • Take Advantage of Hybrid System
  • Use Bonded Assemblies & Joints
  • Provide Good Details on Connections
frp design bonded joints
FRP - DESIGNBONDED JOINTS
  • Epoxy Bonded Assemblies
  • Epoxy Bonded Joints
  • Bonded Shear Transfer Strips
  • Plate Bonding Technology
  • Bonded Splices
  • Durability of Joints
frp design features45
FRP - DESIGN FEATURES
  • Avoid Abrupt Thickness Change
  • Take Advantage of Geometric Shapes
  • Take Advantage of Hybrid System
  • Use Bonded Assemblies & Joints
  • Provide Good Details on Connections
frp design connection details
FRP - DESIGNCONNECTION DETAILS
  • Local Stress Flow
  • Overall Load Path
  • Weak Links
  • Manufacturing Defects
  • Fabrication Irregularities
  • Select Proper Fasteners
frp technology future developments
FRP TECHNOLOGYFUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
  • T2 from Aerospace Industry - CE transition
  • Bridge structures - Stiffness Driven
  • Customized vs. Open Market
  • Cross Cutting Team in Design-Build
  • Education and Training of SE/CEs
  • New Construction Technology
  • New Manuf./Fabric. Technology
frp technology conclusion 1
FRP TECHNOLOGYCONCLUSION - 1
  • Continue R & D Activities
  • Training
  • Government & Private Funding
  • Building Teamwork & Partnership
  • Proprietary Products & Patents
  • Performance/Prescriptive Specs - “Birth Certificate” & Baseline Reference
frp techology conclusion 2
FRP TECHOLOGYCONCLUSION - 2
  • AASHTO, ASCE, ACI, PCI,
  • NSF, NIST (ATP), ISCC
  • Euro and Japanese Standards (Std.)
  • Design Std., Specs & Guidelines
  • Materials Specifications & Testing Std.
  • Manufacturing Process & Standards
  • Database Management